Maarit Oikarinen

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Type 1 diabetes is caused by an immune-mediated process, reflected by the appearance of autoantibodies against pancreatic islets in the peripheral circulation. Detection of multiple autoantibodies predicts the development of diabetes, while positivity for a single autoantibody is a poor prognostic marker. The present study assesses whether positivity for a(More)
Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause β-cell damage in experimental models. Viral persistence has been suspected to be an important pathogenetic factor. This study evaluates whether gut mucosa is a reservoir for enterovirus persistence in type 1(More)
Enterovirus infections have been diagnosed more frequently in type 1 diabetic patients than in the healthy population, and enteroviruses have also been found in the pancreas of diabetic patients. Primary replication of the virus occurs in the gut, but there are no previous studies evaluating possible presence of virus in the intestine of diabetic patients.(More)
The Diabetes Virus Detection study (DiViD) is the first to examine fresh pancreatic tissue at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes for the presence of viruses. Minimal pancreatic tail resection was performed 3-9 weeks after onset of type 1 diabetes in six adult patients (age 24-35 years). The presence of enteroviral capsid protein 1 (VP1) and the expression of(More)
The question if enteroviruses could cause beta-cell damage and type 1 diabetes has become more and more relevant when recent studies have provided new evidence supporting this scenario. One important observation is the recent discovery of IFIH1 as a risk gene for type 1 diabetes. This gene is an innate immune system receptor for enteroviruses offering one(More)
Fulminant type 1 diabetes, established in 2000, is defined as a novel subtype of diabetes mellitus that results from remarkably acute and almost complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells at the disease onset. In this study, we aimed to clarify the pathogenesis of fulminant type 1 diabetes with special reference to insulitis and viral infection. We(More)
Enteroviral infection has been implicated in the development of islet autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes and enteroviral antigen expression has been detected by immunohistochemistry in the pancreatic beta cells of patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. However, the immunohistochemical evidence relies heavily on the use of a monoclonal antibody, clone(More)
BACKGROUND Enterovirus infections are frequent in all age groups. In addition to acute infections, they have been connected to chronic diseases such as cardiomyopathies and type 1 diabetes. Based on this there is an increasing need for the reliable detection of enteroviruses in different kinds of tissue samples. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to set(More)
Enterovirus infections have been implicated in the aetiology of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. A vaccine could be used to test the causal relationship between enterovirus infections and diabetes development. However, the development of a vaccine against a virus suspected to induce an autoimmune disease is challenging, since the vaccine itself might trigger(More)
Gestational enterovirus (EV) infections have been associated with an increased risk for type 1 diabetes in the offspring. We therefore analyzed non-diabetic mothers for EV exposure in early pregnancy in relation to type 1 diabetes HLA-DQ risk genotypes and seroconversion to islet autoantibodies during pregnancy. Non-diabetic mothers who had islet(More)