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Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. METHODS We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at(More)
HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical(More)
OBJECTIVES HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers. DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort study. METHODS Colorectal biopsy pieces were obtained from five untreated noncontrollers, five(More)
To assess the roles of the active site residues Glu160 and Asp181 of human FEN-1 nuclease in binding and catalysis of the flap DNA substrate and in vivo biological processes of DNA damage and repair, five different amino acids were replaced at each site through site-directed mutagenesis of the FEN-1 gene. The mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Recommendations for patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) include endoscopic surveillance with esophagectomy for early-stage cancer, although new technologies to ablate dysplasia and metaplasia are available. This study compares the cost utility of ablation with that of endoscopic surveillance strategies. METHODS A decision analysis(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted T-cell subset. MAIT cells are CD161(+), express a V7.2 TCR, are primarily CD8(+) and numerous in blood and mucosal tissues. However, their role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. In this study, we found levels of MAIT cells to be severely reduced in(More)
Approximately 85% of acute cases of hepatitis C infection result in chronic hepatitis. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus has been thought to occur exclusively after acute infection and is associated with a robust cellular immune response. We describe here a case of a renal transplant recipient who acquired posttransplant hepatitis C virus infection(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates(More)
BACKGROUND Studies suggest that advancing age is an independent risk factor for experiencing adverse events during colonoscopy. Yet many of these studies are limited by small sample sizes and/or marked variation in reported outcomes. OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence rates for specific adverse events in elderly patients undergoing colonoscopy and(More)