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HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical(More)
Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy(More)
A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined.(More)
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted T-cell subset. MAIT cells are CD161(+), express a V7.2 TCR, are primarily CD8(+) and numerous in blood and mucosal tissues. However, their role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. In this study, we found levels of MAIT cells to be severely reduced in(More)
BACKGROUND Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. METHODS We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at(More)
The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA levels <48 copies per mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART)(More)
The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which(More)
AIM Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are a family of transcription factors activated in response to cytokines and growth factors. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been observed in a growing number of tumor-derived cell lines, as well as tumor specimens from human cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the(More)
OBJECTIVE Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4 T-cell recovery has not been well described. DESIGN A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed (immunologic responders with CD4 > 500 cells/μl and(More)
The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight(More)