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Despite the overt nature of most motor and phonic tic phenomena, the development of valid and reliable scales to rate tic severity has been an elusive goal. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) is a new clinical rating instrument that was designed for use in studies of Tourette's syndrome and other tic disorders. The YGTSS provides an evaluation of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the reliability and validity of a semistructured measure of obsessive-compulsive symptom severity in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD Sixty-five children with OCD (25 girls and 40 boys, aged 8 to 17 years) were assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS).(More)
BACKGROUND Limited neurobiological data have implicated central arginine vasopressin in the pathobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on twin, family genetic, and pharmacological studies, some forms of OCD are etiologically related to Tourette's syndrome. The role of arginine vasopressin and related compounds such as oxytocin in Tourette's(More)
Oxytocin (OT) is a neurosecretory nonapeptide synthesized in hypothalamic cells, which project to widely distributed sites in the CNS as well as the neurohypophysis. Central OT affects a variety of cognitive, grooming, affiliative, sexual, and reproductive behaviors in animals. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral(More)
Stress- and anxiety-related fluctuations in tic severity are cardinal features of Tourette's syndrome (TS), and there is evidence for involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the pathophysiology and treatment of the disorder. To examine further the pathobiology of this enhanced vulnerability to stress and anxiety, we measured central activity of(More)
BACKGROUND The familial relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and "obsessive-compulsive spectrum" disorders is unclear. This study investigates the relationship of OCD to somatoform disorders (body dysmorphic disorder [BDD] and hypochondriasis), eating disorders (e.g., anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa), pathologic "grooming"(More)
OBJECTIVE Many children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) are handicapped more by difficulties with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity than by their tics. However, stimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can exacerbate tics. Guanfacine is an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist that may have beneficial effects on(More)
Rigorously designed clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of fluoxetine in adults with major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but not in patients below 18 years old. This report describes a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose (20 mg qd) trial of fluoxetine in 14 children and adolescents(More)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents,(More)
Phenomenology and family history in 21 clinically referred children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder are described. Each child and family participated in a standard clinical psychiatric assessment. The most frequently reported symptoms were repeating rituals, washing, ordering and arranging, checking, and contamination concerns.(More)