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CONTEXT Variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) have been associated with psychiatric disorders. Deep sequencing of the BDNF gene may identify new variations and bring further insight into psychiatric genetics. OBJECTIVE To better characterize sequence variability in the BDNF gene by resequencing a genomic DNA region of 22(More)
BACKGROUND Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative(More)
A missense mutation in the ob gene causes leptin deficiency and morbid obesity. Leptin replacement to three adults with this mutation normalized body weight and eating behavior. Because the neural circuits mediating these changes were unknown, we paired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with presentation of food cues to these subjects. During(More)
DEFICITS IN NEUROPLASTICITY ARE HYPOTHESIZED TO UNDERLIE THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER (MDD): the effectiveness of antidepressants is thought to be related to the normalization of disrupted synaptic transmission and neurogenesis. The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade has received considerable attention for its role(More)
The hormone leptin profoundly affects body weight and metabolism. Three human adults (two women, 35 and 40 yr old; one man, age 27) have been identified with a recessive mutation in the ob gene, which is homologous to the mutation in ob/ob mice, and produces leptin deficiency and morbid obesity. Because leptin replacement increases brain weight and changes(More)
BACKGROUND To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002. METHODS AND FINDINGS Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census(More)
There has been considerable promise and hope that pharmacogenomics will optimize existing treatments for major depression, as well as identify novel targets for drug discovery. Immediately after the sequencing of the human genome, there was much hope that tremendous progress in pharmacogenomics would rapidly be achieved. In the past 10 years this initial(More)
The hypothesis that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the pathogenesis of major depression is supported by several research findings; however, genetic studies assessing the relationship between BDNF and psychiatric disorders have produced conflicting results. We examined the effect of a BDNF polymorphism on depression susceptibility in(More)
OBJECTIVE Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is involved in various functions, such as pigmentation, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions, development of melanoma, susceptibility to ultraviolet-induced sun damage, modification of oculocutaneous albinism, development of freckles, and mediation of female-specific mechanisms of analgesia. MC1R's natural(More)
OBJECTIVES Caspase-1 (casp1), a key protease involved in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), controls the brain expression of a set of eight genes: Nos2 and Ptgs2 (nitric oxide synthase 2 and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, two inducible enzymes), Cxcl1 and Cxcl10 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 and ligand 10), Tgtp and Gbp2 (T(More)