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Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, but we know little about the underlying fundamental biology. Research is hindered by the difficulties of modelling a disorder of higher cognitive functions in animals. Depression can be understood as the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors; however, current classifications are(More)
Both stress-system activation and melancholic depression are characterized by fear, constricted affect, stereotyped thinking, and similar changes in autonomic and neuroendocrine function. Because norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can produce these physiological and behavioral changes, we measured the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(More)
Leptin communicates nutritional status to regulatory centers in the brain. Because peripheral leptin influences the activity of the highly pulsatile adrenal and gonadal axes, we sought to determine whether leptin levels in the blood are pulsatile. We measured circulating leptin levels every 7 minutes for 24 hours, in six healthy men, and found that total(More)
Genetic mutations in the leptin pathway can be a cause of human obesity. It is still unknown whether leptin can be effective in the treatment of fully established morbid obesity and its endocrine and metabolic consequences in adults. To test the hypothesis that leptin has a key role in metabolic and endocrine regulation in adults, we examined the effects of(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a candidate molecule for influencing the clinical response to antidepressant treatment. The aims of this study were to determine the relationship between the Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene and the response to mirtazapine in 243 Korean subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The reduction in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in a generally healthy population. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Singapore to evaluate "prostatitis-like symptoms" (PS), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS),erectile dysfunction (ED), and quality of life (QoL). Respondents with pain or(More)
CONTEXT Variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) have been associated with psychiatric disorders. Deep sequencing of the BDNF gene may identify new variations and bring further insight into psychiatric genetics. OBJECTIVE To better characterize sequence variability in the BDNF gene by resequencing a genomic DNA region of 22(More)
The nonpeptide CRH antagonist antalarmin has been shown to block both behavioral and endocrine responses to CRH. However, it's potential activity in blunting behavioral and endocrine sequelae of stressor exposure has not been assessed. Because antagonism of central CRH by alpha-helical CRH attenuates conditioned fear responses, we sought to test antalarmin(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a transcriptionally regulated enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide from L-arginine that has a key role in the pathophysiology of systemic inflammation and sepsis. Transgenic animals with a null mutation for the iNOS gene are resistant to hypotension and death caused by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The(More)