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BACKGROUND To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002. METHODS AND FINDINGS Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census(More)
Depression is a major cause of disability worldwide, but we know little about the underlying fundamental biology. Research is hindered by the difficulties of modelling a disorder of higher cognitive functions in animals. Depression can be understood as the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors; however, current classifications are(More)
Both stress-system activation and melancholic depression are characterized by fear, constricted affect, stereotyped thinking, and similar changes in autonomic and neuroendocrine function. Because norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can produce these physiological and behavioral changes, we measured the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)(More)
Patients with pathologically increased daytime sleepiness and fatigue have elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6). The latter is an inflammatory cytokine, which causes sickness manifestations, including somnolence and fatigue, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this study, we examined: 1) the relation between serial(More)
At the Prince Charles Hospital, from a 25-year experience with allograft heart valves (1969 to 1994), a 6-year analysis from March 1988 to August 1994 of the contamination rates and efficiency of a short-duration, low-dose antibiotic sterilization protocol was made. This analysis covered 642 collections and 680 aortic and pulmonary valve implants. Tissue(More)
Depression, a complex psychiatric disorder that affects approximately 15% of the population, has an enormous social cost. Although the disorder is thought to be the outcome of gene-environmental interactions, the causative genes and environmental factors underlying depression remain to be identified. All the antidepressant drugs now in use--the forerunner(More)
The nonpeptide CRH antagonist antalarmin has been shown to block both behavioral and endocrine responses to CRH. However, it's potential activity in blunting behavioral and endocrine sequelae of stressor exposure has not been assessed. Because antagonism of central CRH by alpha-helical CRH attenuates conditioned fear responses, we sought to test antalarmin(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a transcriptionally regulated enzyme that synthesizes nitric oxide from L-arginine that has a key role in the pathophysiology of systemic inflammation and sepsis. Transgenic animals with a null mutation for the iNOS gene are resistant to hypotension and death caused by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The(More)
The pathophysiology of systemic inflammation and sepsis involves peripheral organs, causing gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular alterations, as well as the central nervous system (CNS), affecting sleep, temperature regulation, behavior, and neuroendocrine function. The molecular basis of the CNS effects of systemic inflammation are not fully(More)
Studies on the public's willingness to donate blood specimens for genetic research are few and are conducted mainly among Western countries. Little is known about the Asian community's willingness to participate in genetic research. A community-based survey was conducted on 548 adult Singaporeans to examine their willingness to donate blood samples for(More)