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This review highlights recent trends towards the development of in vitro multicellular systems with definite architectures, or "organs on chips". First, the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the scaffold have to be consistent with the anatomical environment in vivo. In this perspective, the flourishing interest in hydrogels as cellular(More)
Amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta) and the protein human serum albumin (HSA) interact in vivo. They are both localised in the blood plasma and in the cerebrospinal fluid. Among other functions, HSA is involved in the transport of the essential metal copper. Complexes between Abeta and copper ions have been proposed to be an aberrant interaction implicated in the(More)
In this paper we report the combination of microfluidics, optogenetics and calcium imaging as a cheap and convenient platform to study synaptic communication between neuronal populations in vitro. We first show that Calcium Orange indicator is compatible in vitro with a commonly used Channelrhodopsine-2 (ChR2) variant, as standard calcium imaging conditions(More)
Various experimental models are used to study brain development and degeneration. They range from whole animal models, which preserve anatomical structures but strongly limit investigations at the cellular level, to dissociated cell culture systems that allow detailed observation of cell phenotypes but lack the highly ordered physiological neuron connection(More)
Plants must develop efficient root architectures to secure access to nutrients and water in soil. This is achieved during plant development through a series of expansion and branching processes, mostly in the proximity of root apical meristems, where the plant senses the environment and explores immediate regions of the soil. We have developed a new(More)
INTRODUCTION Recent histopathological studies have shown that neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease develop along neuronal networks and that hallmarks could propagate trans-synaptically through neuronal pathways. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown, and investigations have been impeded by the complexity of(More)
Chronic neurodegenerative syndromes such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, or acute syndromes such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injuries are characterized by early synaptic collapse which precedes axonal and neuronal cell body degeneration and promotes early cognitive impairment in patients. Until now, neuroprotective strategies have failed(More)
Oriented neuronal networks with controlled connectivity are required for many applications ranging from studies of neurodegeneration to neuronal computation. To build such networks in vitro, an efficient, directed and long lasting guidance of axons toward their target is a pre-requisite. The best guidance achieved so far, however, relies on confining axons(More)
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