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AIMS Nitroglycerin (GTN) acts through release of a nitric oxide (NO)-related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase in vascular smooth muscle. Besides enzymatic GTN bioactivation catalysed by aldehyde dehydrogenase, non-enzymatic reaction of GTN with ascorbate also results in the formation of a bioactive product. Using an established guinea pig model of(More)
Nitroxyl (HNO) may be formed endogenously by uncoupled nitric-oxide (NO) synthases, enzymatic reduction of NO or as product of vascular nitroglycerin bioactivation. The established HNO donor Angeli's salt (trioxodinitrate, AS) causes cGMP-dependent vasodilation through activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). We investigated the mechanisms underlying(More)
The East Asian variant of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibits significantly reduced dehydrogenase, esterase, and nitroglycerin (GTN) denitrating activities. The small molecule Alda-1 was reported to partly restore low acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity of this variant. In the present study we compared the wild type enzyme (ALDH2*1) with(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the bioactivation of nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN) in blood vessels, resulting in vasodilation by nitric oxide (NO) or a related species. Because the mechanism of this reaction is still unclear we determined the three-dimensional structures of wild-type (WT) ALDH2 and of a triple mutant of the protein(More)
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) plays an essential role in nitroglycerin (GTN) bioactivation, resulting in formation of NO or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase. ALDH2 denitrates GTN to 1,2-glyceryl dinitrate and nitrite but also catalyzes reduction of GTN to NO. To elucidate the relationship between ALDH2-catalyzed GTN(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular tolerance to nitroglycerin (GTN) may be caused by impaired GTN bioactivation due to inactivation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). As relaxation to GTN is reduced but still sensitive to ALDH2 inhibitors in ascorbate deficiency, we compared the contribution of ALDH2 inactivation to GTN hyposensitivity in(More)
To elucidate the mechanism underlying reduction of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), we generated mutants of the enzyme lacking the cysteines adjacent to reactive Cys302 (C301S and C303S), the glutamate that participates as a general base in aldehyde oxidation (E268Q) or combinations of these residues.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE L-gulonolactone oxidase-deficient (Gulo((-/-))) mice were used to study the effects of ascorbate deficiency on aortic relaxation by nitroglycerin (GTN) with focus on changes in the expression and activity of vascular aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which catalyses GTN bioactivation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ascorbate deficiency was(More)