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BACKGROUND The probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in representative African populations is unknown. We aimed to calculate this probability overall, and to estimate how it is affected by various factors thought to influence infectivity. METHODS 174 monogamous couples, in which one partner was HIV-1 positive, were retrospectively identified(More)
BACKGROUND The study tested the hypothesis that community-level control of sexually transmitted disease (STD) would result in lower incidence of HIV-1 infection in comparison with control communities. METHODS This randomised, controlled, single-masked, community-based trial of intensive STD control, via home-based mass antibiotic treatment, took place in(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess bias in estimates of STD prevalence in population based surveys resulting from diagnostic error and selection bias. To evaluate the effects of such biases on STD prevalence estimates from three community randomised trials of STD treatment for HIV prevention in Masaka and Rakai, Uganda and Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS Age and sex(More)
Two randomised controlled trials of sexually transmitted disease (STD) treatment for the prevention of HIV-1 Infection, in Mwanza, Tanzania, and Rakai, Uganda, unexpectedly produced contrasting results. A decrease in population HIV-1 incidence was associated with improved STD case management in Mwanza, but was not associated with STD mass treatment in(More)
A random sample of 960 women aged 15-59 years enrolled in a population-based study in rural Uganda were asked to provide self-collected vaginal swabs for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing by hybrid capture assay. The intensity of HPV infection was assessed by the relative light unit (RLU) ratio in the specimen-to-positive control (PC) ratio. In total, 898(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the effects of HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections on pregnancy, we undertook cross-sectional and prospective studies of a rural population in Rakai district, Uganda. METHODS 4813 sexually active women aged 15-49 years were surveyed to find out the prevalence of pregnancy by interview and selective urinary human chorionic(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) susceptibility is heterogenous, with some HIV-exposed but seronegative (HESN) individuals remaining uninfected despite repeated exposure. Previous studies in the cervix have shown that reduced HIV susceptibility may be mediated by immune alterations in the genital mucosa. However, immune correlates of HIV exposure without(More)