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The evolution of cellulose digestion in insects
It is proposed that non-cellulolytic omnivorous scavengers and detritivores may be preadapted to evolve symbiont-mediated cellulolytic mechanisms because of the prevalence of mutualistic associations between such species and the microorganisms that normally reside in their hindguts. Expand
Tannin assays in ecological studies: Lack of correlation between phenolics, proanthocyanidins and protein-precipitating constituents in mature foliage of six oak species
A convenient modification of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) precipitation assay, which measures the amount of protein precipitated when a plant extract is added to a BSA solution, is described and recommended for routine adoption in studies of the role of tannins in plant-herbivore interactions. Expand
CONTENTS I. Intmduction . . . . . . . . . 11. Arthropod-fungal associations . . . . . . . (I) Arthropods associated with sporophores . . . . (2) Arthropods in habitats which include fungal mycelium .Expand
Cellulose digestion in insects
A process in which ingested cellulolytic bacteria proliferate in one region of the gut at the expense of ingested cellulose, only to be digested and assimilated in a more posterior section, is a fourth possible mechanism by which insects might accomplish the digestion of cellulose with the help of microorganisms. Expand
The effects of quantity and quality of diet nitrogen on the growth, efficiency of food utilization, nitrogen budget, and metabolic rate of fifth-instar Spodoptera eridania larvae (Lepidoptera:
It is concluded that elevated metabolic rates of larvae on diets containing nutritionally unbalanced protein are not the cause of reduced growth rates, and the possibility that variation in amino acid profiles across host plant species might be a factor favouring specialization in insect herbivores is discussed. Expand
Cellulose digestion in primitive hexapods: Effect of ingested antibiotics on gut microbial populations and gut cellulase levels in the firebrat,Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae)
It is concluded that the gut cellulases of firebrats are of insect origin, which implies that symbiont-independent cellulose digestion is a primitive trait in insects and that symbIONt-mediated cellulose absorption is a derived condition. Expand
Significance of Metabolic Load in the Evolution of Host Specificity of Manduca Sexta
It is suggested that the concept of metabolic load is not a useful one in understanding the effects of plant allelochemicals on the growth and efficiency of food utilization or in explaining the evolution of dietary specialization of lepidopteran herbivores. Expand
The Role of Ingested Fungal Enzymes in Cellulose Digestion in the Larvae of Cerambycid Beetles
It is argued that ingested fungal enzymes may be responsible for cellulose digestion in many, perhaps even all, xylophagous larvae from the three coleopteran families Anobiidae, Buprestidae, and Cerambycidae. Expand
Surfactants: their role in preventing the precipitation of proteins by tannins in insect guts
It is concluded that detergency is a widespread property of insect gut fluids that counteracts the potential of tannin to precipitate die ary proteins, and it is argued that there is no longer any justification for continuing to refer to tannins as digestibility-reducing-substances. Expand
The effect of dietary nicotine on the allocation of assimilated food to energy metabolism and growth in fourth-instar larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
This study is the first study to demonstrate unequivocally that the negative effect of a dietary toxin on net growth efficiency in an insect herbivore is due to an increase in the allocation of assimilated food to energy metabolism and not to a decrease in the amount of food assimilated. Expand