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Ischemic preconditioning (Pre-con) is an adaptive response triggered by a brief ischemia applied before a prolonged coronary occlusion. We tested the hypothesis that repetitive ischemia applied during early reperfusion (R), i.e. post-conditioning (Post-con), is cardioprotective by attenuating R injury. In anesthetized open-chest dogs, the LAD was occluded(More)
OBJECTIVE The optimal level of glycemic control needed to improve outcomes in cardiac surgery patients remains controversial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We randomized patients with diabetes (n = 152) and without diabetes (n = 150) with hyperglycemia to an intensive glucose target of 100-140 mg/dL (n = 151) or to a conservative target of 141-180 mg/dL (n(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged deep hypothermic circulatory arrest is known to cause neurological injury. Hypoxia inducible factor, a transcription factor that mediates adaptive changes during hypoxia, is neuroprotective in models of ischemic brain injury, in part by upregulating erythropoietin. This study tested the hypothesis that upregulation of hypoxia inducible(More)
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