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Branching morphogenesis of the embryonic lung requires interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme. Previously, we reported that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transcripts are present in the epithelium of the developing mouse lung, with highest levels in the terminal buds. Here, we report that transcripts of mouse patched (Ptc), the homologue of a(More)
The human Ras-related nuclear protein Ran/TC4 (refs 1-4) is the prototype of a well conserved family of GTPases that can regulate both cell-cycle progression and messenger RNA transport. Ran has been proposed to undergo tightly controlled cycles of GTP binding and hydrolysis, to operate as a GTPase switch whose GTP- and GDP-bound forms interact(More)
Determinants of membrane targeting of Rho proteins were investigated in live cells with green fluorescent fusion proteins expressed with or without Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI)alpha. The hypervariable region determined to which membrane compartment each protein was targeted. Targeting was regulated by binding to RhoGDI alpha in the(More)
A mixed-oligonucleotide probe was used to identify four ras-like coding sequences in a human teratocarcinoma cDNA library. Two of these sequences resembled the rho genes, one was closely related to H-, K-, and N-ras, and one shared only the four sequence domains that define the ras gene superfamily. Homologs of the four genes were found in genomic DNA from(More)
Ran is one of the most abundant and best conserved of the small GTP binding and hydrolyzing proteins of eukaryotes. It is located predominantly in cell nuclei. Ran is a member of the Ras family of GTPases, which includes the Ras and Ras-like proteins that regulate cell growth and division, the Rho and Rac proteins that regulate cytoskeletal organization and(More)
Ran/TC4, first identified as a well-conserved gene distantly related to H-RAS, encodes a protein which has recently been shown in yeast and mammalian systems to interact with RCC1, a protein whose function is required for the normal coupling of the completion of DNA synthesis and the initiation of mitosis. Here, we present data indicating that the nuclear(More)
The small Ras-related GTP binding and hydrolyzing protein Ran has been implicated in a variety of processes, including cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, RNA processing, and nuclear-cytosolic trafficking of both RNA and proteins. Like other small GTPases, Ran appears to function as a switch: Ran-GTP and Ran-GDP levels are regulated both by guanine(More)
Ran/TC4, a member of the RAS gene superfamily, encodes an abundant nuclear protein that binds and hydrolyzes GTP. Transient expression of a Ran/TC4 mutant protein deficient in GTP hydrolysis blocked DNA replication, suggesting a role for Ran/TC4 in the regulation of cell cycle progression. To test this possibility, we exploited an efficient transfection(More)
Mobile genetic elements have been reported in prokaryotes, plants, yeast and Drosophila. The only transposon-like sequences reported for mammalian organisms are closely related to retroviruses, although undoubtedly other transposon families exist within the mammalian genome. Although mobile genetic elements can only be identified as such if their mobility(More)
Although the human Ras proteins are members of a large superfamily of Ras-related proteins, to date, only the proteins encoded by the three mammalian ras genes have been found to possess oncogenic potential. Among the known Ras-related proteins, TC21/R-Ras2 exhibits the most significant amino acid identity (55%) to Ras proteins. We have generated mutant(More)