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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Compilation of worldwide data regarding the incidence and prevalence of pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is needed in order to evaluate the scope of the disease in the pediatric population. A literature review was performed to unify the current data available on the global incidence and prevalence of pediatric-onset SLE. We examined 13(More)
The immunogenicity of recombinant gp120 from the MN strain of HIV-1, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine, was evaluated in guinea pigs using adjuvant formulations with different physical and chemical properties. The adjuvants tested included Freund's adjuvant (FA), alum, and the novel adjuvant QS-21. These studies demonstrated that QS-21 provides a number of(More)
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in children is a chronic multisystem disease with wide ranging effects on their quality of life (QOL). While SLE's impact on different arenas of life and well-being has been extensively examined in the adult population, its effect on children has not received adequate attention. This review discusses the multidimensional(More)
The objective of this study is to assess relationship of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) activity with quality of life (QOL) and physical function and determine which is more closely correlated with SLE activity in children; and identify factors critical to children's QOL. In this cross-sectional study, children with SLE and parents completed(More)
We previously described the development and validation of the 'Simple Measure of the Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters' (SMILEY) for the reliable assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objectives of this new study were to determine the relationship of SMILEY scores to(More)
Cognitive impairment in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can affect intelligence, academic achievement, arithmetic, reading comprehension, learning, visual memory and complex problem solving ability. In this prospective two-center study, we examined children's (and adolescents') and parents' perception of the impact of SLE on(More)
It is widely acknowledged that genetic factors play a significant role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the female preponderance remains unexplained. We hypothesized that the female preponderance in childhood SLE results from selection early in the course of conception against male fetuses bearing genetic material(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Simple Measure of the Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment tool for pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which has been translated into Portuguese for Brazil. We are reporting preliminary data on cross-cultural validation and reliability of SMILEY in(More)