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Forest fragmentation may cause increased brood parasitism and nest pre-dation of breeding birds. In North America, nest parasitism and predation are expected to increase closer to forest edges because the brood-parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird (Mol-othrus ater) and generalist nest predators often enter the forest from adjoining developed (largely(More)
Ecological processes are dependent on the spatial and temporal scale at which they are viewed, and a process at any one scale may be influenced by factors at other scales. Thus, an ecological process at a broader scale may act to constrain processes at finer scales (Allen and Starr 1982, Thompson et al. 2000). Developing a full understanding of the spatial(More)
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