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The normal human audiogenic startle reflex is defined from a review of the literature, substantiated by a current investigation of normal subjects, and clarified pathophysiologically by a discussion of animal experimentation. The basic information is used to evaluate critically a variety of syndromes loosely termed 'startle' in the past. A new(More)
We provide a lower bound on the number of closed characteristics on singular energy levels of second-order Lagrangian systems in the presence of saddle-focus equilibria. The hypotheses on the Lagrangian are mild, and the bound is given in terms of the number of saddle-foci and a potential function determined by the Lagrangian. The method of proof is(More)
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