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Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of tetrodotoxin and its analogs: liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) scan for the fragment ions of eight TTXs arising from the molecular ions provided characteristic spectra, and the structures of the origins of the prominent fragment ions were proposed.
Toxicity of Dangerous Prey: Variation of Tetrodotoxin Levels Within and Among Populations of the Newt Taricha granulosa
The defensive chemical trait of a prey species, the newt Taricha granulosa, thought to be part of a coevolutionary arms race is quantified.
Interactions of the C-11 hydroxyl of tetrodotoxin with the sodium channel outer vestibule.
A new molecular model of TTX binding is proposed based on the pattern of interactions suggested that C-11 was closest to domain IV, probably involved in a hydrogen bond with the domain IV carboxyl group.
First occurrence of tetrodotoxin in a dendrobatid frog (Colostethus inguinalis), with further reports for the bufonid genus Atelopus.
The water-soluble toxin present in skin of Colostethus inguinalis (Dendrobatidae) was identified as tetrodotoxin by fluorometric HPLC analysis and tetrodOToxin-like activity was present in extracts of skin of five species of Atelopus (Bufonidae).
Effects of specific modifications of several hydroxyls of tetrodotoxin on its affinity to rat brain membrane.
The markedly low affinity of TTX-8-O-hemisuccinate may possibly be ascribable to intramolecular salt-bridge formation, which neutralizes the positive charge of the guanidinium group.
Tetrodotoxin and its analogues in extracts from the toad Atelopus oxyrhynchus (family: Bufonidae).
The toxin and its analogues were still present in a specimen which lived 3.5 years in captivity, and was detected in the toad Atelopus oxyrhynchus by HPLC analysis.
LC/MS Analysis of Tetrodotoxin and Its Deoxy Analogs in the Marine Puffer Fish Fugu niphobles from the Southern Coast of Korea, and in the Brackishwater Puffer Fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and
Tetrodotoxin and its deoxy analogs were quantified in the tissues of three female and three male specimens of the marine puffer fish, Fugu niphobles, and in the whole body of the brackishwater puffer fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Tetrodon biocellatus, using LC/MS in single ion mode (SIM).
Tetrodotoxin and its analogue 6-epitetrodotoxin in newts (Triturus spp.; Urodela, Salamandridae) from southern Germany.
Tetrodotoxin and its analogue 6-epitetrodOToxin were quantitatively assayed in 59 newts representing four Triturus species from southern Germany by a post-column fluorescent-HPLC system and 6-EPiTTX was found to be the major component.
Optimization of simultaneous analysis of tetrodotoxin, 4-epitetrodotoxin, 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin, and 5,6,11-trideoxytetrodotoxin by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass
Recently, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) has been recognized as a useful method to analyze tetrodotoxin (TTX), the primary toxin for puffer fish poisoning. TTX usually exists with
New Method for the Quantitative Determination of Major Protein Carbonyls, α-Aminoadipic and γ-Glutamic Semialdehydes: Investigation of the Formation Mechanism and Chemical Nature in Vitro and in Vivo
Alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and gamma-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) are identified as the major carbonyl products in oxidized proteins. To elucidate the formation pathway of AAS and GGS in