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American College of Sports Medicine roundtable. The physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation.
Creatine (Cr) supplementation has become a common practice among professional, elite, collegiate, amateur, and recreational athletes with the expectation of enhancing exercise performance. ResearchExpand
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Effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake, ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and run performance.
Seven male competitive runners (VO2max 73.9 +/- 6.3 ml.kg-1.min-1) participated in a two-session, placebo, double-blind study to determine the effects of phosphate loading on oxygen uptake,Expand
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The effect of induced erythrocythemia upon 5-mile treadmill run time.
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect the infusion of 920 ml equivalent of autologous blood would have upon 5-mile time (5MT) and both local (RPE-L) andExpand
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Creatine: the Power Supplement
Creating requirements and metabolic finctions creatine supplementation - theory, protocol and effects research considerations with nutritional sports ergogenic effects of creatine supplementation onExpand
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Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids
  • M. Williams
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the International Society of Sports…
  • 9 December 2005
This is the third in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, orExpand
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Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals
  • M. Williams
  • Medicine
  • Journal of the International Society of Sports…
  • 11 June 2005
Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscleExpand
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Effect of caffeine upon maximal muscular endurance of females.
The effect of various dosages of caffeine upon maximal endurance capacity in females was studied. The effect of caffeine upon resting heart rate (RHR), submaximal heart rate (SHR), maximal heart rateExpand
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The effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on running velocity.
Creatine supplementation has been shown to augment muscle PCr content and increase the rate of ATP resynthesis. Thus, we hypothesized that creatine supplementation might enhance sprintingExpand
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Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update.
Creatine, a natural nutrient found in animal foods, is alleged to be an effective nutritional ergogenic aid to enhance sport or exercise performance. Research suggests that oral creatine monohydrateExpand
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Development of spontaneous mammary tumors over the life-span of the female Charles River (Sprague-Dawley) rat: the influence of ovariectomy, thyroidectomy, and adrenalectomy-ovariectomy.
Summary Several groups of virgin female cesarean-originated, barrier-sustained Charles River CD rats were observed for incidence of mammary tumors over their life-span. Maximum life-span ranged fromExpand
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