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Estimating effective population size and migration rates from genetic samples over space and time.
In the past, moment and likelihood methods have been developed to estimate the effective population size (N(e)) on the basis of the observed changes of marker allele frequencies over time, and theseExpand
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The incomplete natural history of mitochondria
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used to study molecular ecology and phylogeography for 25 years. Much important information has been gained in this way, but it is time to reflect on the biology ofExpand
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Combining probability from independent tests: the weighted Z‐method is superior to Fisher's approach
  • M. Whitlock
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of evolutionary biology
  • 1 September 2005
The most commonly used method in evolutionary biology for combining information across multiple tests of the same null hypothesis is Fisher's combined probability test. This note shows that anExpand
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Evolutionary inference from QST
  • M. Whitlock
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular ecology
  • 1 April 2008
Q ST is a commonly used metric of the degree of genetic differentiation among populations displayed by quantitative traits. Typically, QST is compared to FST measured on putatively neutral loci; ifExpand
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Reliable Detection of Loci Responsible for Local Adaptation: Inference of a Null Model through Trimming the Distribution of FST*
Loci responsible for local adaptation are likely to have more genetic differentiation among populations than neutral loci. However, neutral loci can vary widely in their amount of geneticExpand
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Evaluation of demographic history and neutral parameterization on the performance of FST outlier tests
FST outlier tests are a potentially powerful way to detect genetic loci under spatially divergent selection. Unfortunately, the extent to which these tests are robust to nonequilibrium demographicExpand
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The relative power of genome scans to detect local adaptation depends on sampling design and statistical method
Although genome scans have become a popular approach towards understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation, the field still does not have a firm grasp on how sampling design and demographicExpand
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Indirect measures of gene flow and migration: FST not equal to 1/(4Nm + 1).
The difficulty of directly measuring gene flow has lead to the common use of indirect measures extrapolated from genetic frequency data. These measures are variants of FST, a standardized measure ofExpand
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Many ecologically important traits have a complex genetic basis, with the potential for mutations at many different genes to shape the phenotype. Even so, studies of local adaptation in heterogeneousExpand
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The heritability of fluctuating asymmetry and the genetic control of developmental stability
  • M. Whitlock
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London…
  • 22 July 1996
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the unsigned difference between the left and right sides for some trait on an organism with no average difference between the sides. Because FA is assumed to reflectExpand
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