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A method for measuring hydraulic conductivity and embolism in xylem
Abstract Hydraulic conductivity of the xylem is computed as the quotient of mass flow rate and pressure gradient. Measurements on excised plant stems can be difficult to interpret because of…
The hydraulic architecture of trees and other woody plants
summary In this paper, we have reviewed how the hydraulic design of trees influences the movement of water from roots to leaves. The hydraulic architecture of trees can limit their water relations,…
Drought sensitivity shapes species distribution patterns in tropical forests
It is shown that differential drought sensitivity shapes plant distributions in tropical forests at both regional and local scales, and changes in soil moisture availability caused by global climate change and forest fragmentation are likely to alter tropical species distributions, community composition and diversity.
Biophysical Perspectives of Xylem Evolution: is there a Tradeoff of Hydraulic Efficiency for Vulnerability to Dysfunction?
The evolution of xylem structure is discussed in the context of the current understanding of the biophysics of water transport in plants to give an improved understandings of the relations hip between xyleM structure and function.
Dynamic measurements of root hydraulic conductance using a high-pressure flowmeter in the laboratory and field
A new high-pressure flowmeter (HPFM) is described which is capable of rapid water-flow measurements. The HPFM permits dynamic determination of hydraulic conductance of roots, K r , and can be used in…
Mechanism of water stress-induced xylem embolism.
The hypothesis that water stress-induced xylem embolism is caused by air aspirated into functional vessels from neighboring embolized ones via pores in intervessel pit membranes is investigated and experiments with sugar maple support the hypothesis.
PIP1 plasma membrane aquaporins in tobacco: from cellular effects to function in plants.
Evidence is found for NtAQP1 function in cellular and whole-plant water relations and the results emphasize the importance of symplastic aquaporin-mediated water transport in whole- plant water relations.
Putative Role of Aquaporins in Variable Hydraulic Conductance of Leaves in Response to Light1
It is indicated that walnut leaves can rapidly change their hydraulic conductance and suggested that these changes can be explained by regulation of plasma membrane aquaporins, and model simulation suggests that variable leaf hydraulic Conductance in walnut might enhance leaf gas exchanges while buffering leaf water status in response to ambient light fluctuations.
The Measurement of the Turgor Pressure and the Water Relations of Plants by the Pressure-bomb Technique
The pressure-bomb technique as developed by Scholander and colleagues is reviewed. A theoretical analysis of the equilibrium water-relations of individual cells of a twig is derived taking due…
Do woody plants operate near the point of catastrophic xylem dysfunction caused by dynamic water stress? : answers from a model.
The model supported Zimmermann's plant segmentation hypothesis, whereby it was suggested that plants are designed hydraulically to sacrifice highly vulnerable minor branches and thus improve the water balance of remaining parts.