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The Haemophilus ducreyi Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis via the DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathways*
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the effect of the Haemophilus ducreyiCDT is cell type-specific: B cell lines underwent apoptosis, epithelial cells and keratinocytes arrested exclusively in G2, whereas normal fibroblasts arrested both in G1 and G2.
The Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin induces DNA double‐strand breaks and promotes ATM‐dependent activation of RhoA
TLDR
It is shown that a member of the CDT family causes DNA double‐strand breaks in naturally intoxicated cells, acting as a true genotoxic agent, and the existence of a novel signalling pathway for intracellularly triggered activation of the RhoA GTPase via the ATM kinase in response to DNA damage is disclosed.
Cellular Internalization of Cytolethal Distending Toxin from Haemophilus ducreyi
TLDR
It is reported that Haemophilus ducreyi's HdCDT has to undergo at least internalization before being able to act and has to be transported via the Golgi complex in order to intoxicate cells.
Ras, Rap, and Rac Small GTP-binding Proteins Are Targets for Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin Glucosylation (*)
TLDR
LT is a glucosyltransferase that uses UDP-Glc as a cofactor to covalently modify 21-kDa proteins both in vitro and in vivo, and is thus a powerful tool to inhibit Ras function in vivo.
The Haemophilus ducreyi cytolethal distending toxin activates sensors of DNA damage and repair complexes in proliferating and non‐proliferating cells
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the toxin activates DNA damage‐associated molecules in an ATM‐dependent manner, both in proliferating and non‐proliferating cells, acting as other DNA damaging agents.
GTPases of the Rho Subfamily Are Required for Brucella abortus Internalization in Nonprofessional Phagocytes
TLDR
The polyphasic approach used to discern the molecular events leading to Brucella internalization provides new alternatives for exploring the complexity of the signals required by intracellular pathogens for cell invasion.
The cytolethal distending toxins induce DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.
Cellular internalization of cytolethal distending toxin: a new end to a known pathway
TLDR
Two important aspects of the biology of this bacterial toxin family are highlighted: (i) HdCDT translocation from the ER to the nucleus does not involve the classical pathways followed by other retrogradely transported toxins and (ii) toxin internalization is crucial for execution of its genotoxic activity.
A Novel Cytotoxin from Clostridium difficileSerogroup F Is a Functional Hybrid between Two Other Large Clostridial Cytotoxins*
TLDR
The novel hybrid toxin will broaden the utility of the LCTs for clarifying the functions of several small GTPases, now including also R-Ras, as well as considerably more potent cytotoxins than TcsL-1522.
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