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Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes
Light Therapy for Seasonal and Nonseasonal Depression: Efficacy, Protocol, Safety, and Side Effects
It is shown that light therapy provides a compatible adjunct to antidepressant medication, which can result in accelerated improvement and fewer residual symptoms in patients with SAD.
Circadian time of morning light administration and therapeutic response in winter depression.
The antidepressant effect of light is potentiated by early-morning administration in circadian time, optimally about 8.5 hours after melatonin onset or 2.
A controlled trial of timed bright light and negative air ionization for treatment of winter depression.
Bright light and high-density negative air ionization both appear to act as specific antidepressants in patients with seasonal affective disorder, and clinical improvement would be further enhanced by their use in combination, or as adjuvants to medication, awaits investigation.
Food availability and daily biological rhythms
Feeding schedules and the circadian organization of behavior in the rat
Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder. A review of efficacy.
Jet lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response to melatonin in a randomized, double-blind trial.
A new rating scale for measuring severity of jet lag was validated and the efficacy of contrasting melatonin regimens to alleviateJet lag was compared to compare, with no significant group differences or group-by-time interactions.
Chronotherapeutics (light and wake therapy) in affective disorders
Non-pharmaceutical, biologically based therapies to be potentially powerful adjuvants ready for clinical application and the need for additional studies, both in-patient and out-patient, to broaden the evidence base for indications and efficacy is stressed.
On the Question of Mechanism in Phototherapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Considerations of Clinical Efficacy and Epidemiology
- M. Terman
- PsychologyJournal of biological rhythms
- 1 June 1988
It is suggested that bright light to the retina, in light-starved patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder (SAD), excites central responses through direct connections to the hypothalamus, where aberrant vegetative sleep and feeding patterns can be brought under control and the mood can be elevated.