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Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes
Prevalence rates of winter SAD and subsyndromal SAD were found to be significantly higher at the more northern latitudes, while no correlation was found between latitude and summer SAD. Expand
Light Therapy for Seasonal and Nonseasonal Depression: Efficacy, Protocol, Safety, and Side Effects
It is shown that light therapy provides a compatible adjunct to antidepressant medication, which can result in accelerated improvement and fewer residual symptoms in patients with SAD. Expand
Circadian time of morning light administration and therapeutic response in winter depression.
The antidepressant effect of light is potentiated by early-morning administration in circadian time, optimally about 8.5 hours after melatonin onset or 2. Expand
A controlled trial of timed bright light and negative air ionization for treatment of winter depression.
Bright light and high-density negative air ionization both appear to act as specific antidepressants in patients with seasonal affective disorder, and clinical improvement would be further enhanced by their use in combination, or as adjuvants to medication, awaits investigation. Expand
Food availability and daily biological rhythms
It is suggested that such a mechanism may enable an animal to recognize and take advantage of the periodic recurrence of significant events in its biotic environment. Expand
Feeding schedules and the circadian organization of behavior in the rat
Results provide evidence for the participation of two distinct circadian systems in the control of behavior in the rat, which appear to have different entrainment characteristics and separate physiological substrates. Expand
Jet lag: clinical features, validation of a new syndrome-specific scale, and lack of response to melatonin in a randomized, double-blind trial.
- R. Spitzer, M. Terman, +4 authors A. Lewy
- Psychology, Medicine
- The American journal of psychiatry
- 1 September 1999
A new rating scale for measuring severity of jet lag was validated and the efficacy of contrasting melatonin regimens to alleviateJet lag was compared to compare, with no significant group differences or group-by-time interactions. Expand
Light therapy for seasonal affective disorder. A review of efficacy.
- M. Terman, J. Terman, F. Quitkin, P. McGrath, J. Stewart, B. Rafferty
- Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of…
- 1 March 1989
Overall, 2500-lux intensity light exposure for at least 2 hours daily for 1 week resulted in significantly more remissions--Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score reduction of 50% or more to a level under 8--when administered in the early morning than in the evening or at midday. Expand
Controlled trial of naturalistic dawn simulation and negative air ionization for seasonal affective disorder.
Naturalistic dawn simulation and high-density ionization are active antidepressants that do not require the effort of postawakening bright light therapy and can be considered candidate alternatives to bright light or medication. Expand
On the Question of Mechanism in Phototherapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Considerations of Clinical Efficacy and Epidemiology
- M. Terman
- Journal of biological rhythms
- 1 June 1988
It is suggested that bright light to the retina, in light-starved patients suffering from seasonal affective disorder (SAD), excites central responses through direct connections to the hypothalamus, where aberrant vegetative sleep and feeding patterns can be brought under control and the mood can be elevated. Expand