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The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations
Current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, DHA, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development is reviewed.
Set points, settling points and some alternative models: theoretical options to understand how genes and environments combine to regulate body adiposity
Two additional models are discussed – the general intake model and the dual intervention point model – that address the issue of how body fatness is controlled and might offer better ways to understand how body weight is controlled.
Programming of glucose-insulin metabolism in adult sheep after maternal undernutrition.
- D. Gardner, K. Tingey, M. Symonds
- Biology, MedicineAmerican journal of physiology. Regulatory…
- 1 October 2005
Pregnant undernutrition, specifically during late gestation, affects adult offspring intermediary metabolism, and, in particular, glucose-insulin homeostasis in sheep, which was unaffected by fetal number.
Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans
This study demonstrates a very strong seasonal variation in the presence of BAT, suggesting a previously undescribed mechanism for mediating BAT function in humans that could now potentially be recruited for the prevention or reversal of obesity.
Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.
Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating.
Nutritional programming of the metabolic syndrome
The effect of changes in maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development on an individual's subsequent predisposition to the metabolic syndrome is considered.
Reduced Selenium Concentrations and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Preeclamptic Pregnancies
Reductions in serum selenium concentrations and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in pregnancy per se compared to nonpregnant controls were revealed and these levels were further decreased in the preeclamptic mothers and babies compared to normal pregnancies.
Peri-Implantation Undernutrition Programs Blunted Angiotensin II Evoked Baroreflex Responses in Young Adult Sheep
The data suggest that peri-implantation undernutrition may program long-term cardiovascular dysfunction that ultimately increases the risk of hypertension later in life, and an increase in regional angiotensin II activity during this critical early phase of development is a likely candidate mechanism.
Brown Adipose Tissue Growth and Development
- M. Symonds
- 31 March 2013
Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.
Adipose tissue and fetal programming
The growth of the different fetal adipose tissue depots varies according to maternal diet and, if challenged in later life, this can contribute to insulin resistance and impaired glucose homeostasis.