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Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology
A genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility.
Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index
18 new loci associated with body mass index are identified, one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B, and genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
It is demonstrated that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy
Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height
The results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number of causal variants, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid.
Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height
It is shown that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait, and indicates that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.
New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution
A genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
Use of the oral glucose tolerance test to assess insulin release and insulin sensitivity.
Predicting insulin sensitivity and insulin release with reasonable accuracy from simple demographic parameters and values obtained during an OGTT is possible and should be used in various clinical settings in which the use of clamps or the minimal model would be impractical.
Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans
- M. Ristow, K. Zarse, M. Blüher
- Medicine, BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 26 May 2009
Consistent with the concept of mitohormesis, exercise-induced oxidative stress ameliorates insulin resistance and causes an adaptive response promoting endogenous antioxidant defense capacity and supplementation with antioxidants may preclude these health-promoting effects of exercise in humans.
Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations
New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.