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Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance.
A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp.
Guidelines for the validation and application of typing methods for use in bacterial epidemiology.
Newer and older, phenotypic and genotypic methods for typing of all clinically relevant bacterial species are described according to their principles, advantages and disadvantages and Criteria for their evaluation and application and the interpretation of their results are proposed.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): burden of disease and control challenges in Europe.
The current burden of MRSA infections in healthcare and community settings across Europe is described and the main threats caused by recent changes in the epidemiology of MR SA are outlined, aimed at identifying unmet needs of surveillance, prevention and control ofMRSA in Europe.
Harmonization of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Protocols for Epidemiological Typing of Strains of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a Single Approach Developed by Consensus in 10
This multinational European Union project has established for the first time a European database of representative epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) strains and has compared them by using a new “harmonized” PFGE protocol developed by a consensus approach that has demonstrated sufficient reproducibility to allow the successful comparison of pulsed-field gels between laboratories and the tracking of strains around the EU.
Antimicrobial Resistance of Old and Recent Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Poultry: First Detection of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Strain ST398
This is the first report of “livestock-associated” methicillin resistant S. aureus from healthy poultry.
Polyclonal emergence and importation of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains harbouring Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes in Belgium.
These results indicate the recent emergence and sporadic importation into Belgium of PVL-positive community-associated MRSA strains belonging to five distinct clones.
Livestock-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Humans, Europe
To estimate the proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from humans that were sequence type (ST) 398, we surveyed 24 laboratories in 17 countries in Europe in 2007.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 in Swine Farm Personnel, Belgium
Risk factors for carriage were MRSA carriage by pigs, regular contact with pigs and companion animals, and use of protective clothing.