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Sexual Dimorphism in Flower Size
Sexual dimorphism in the secondary characters of unisexual flowers is often observed. Most prior reports indicate that male flowers have larger petals than female flowers. In this article we examineExpand
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Interacting Guilds: Moving beyond the Pairwise Perspective on Mutualisms
  • M. Stanton
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The American Naturalist
  • 1 October 2003
Most textbook treatments imply, and almost all theoretical analyses assume, that mutualistic interactions take place between a single pair of interacting partner species. A major goal of thisExpand
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Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism
Understanding cooperation is a central challenge in biology, because natural selection should favor “free-loaders” that reap benefits without reciprocating. For interspecific cooperation (mutualism),Expand
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Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya
We present experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that increased spine length in acacia species is a defense induced by herbivory. Acacia drepanolobium is the dominant tree over large areasExpand
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Seed variation in wild radish: effect of seed size on components of seedling and adult fitness
Seed mass in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) varies up to sixfold within single fruits. The impact of such variation on subsequent growth and fecundity was studied. Seeds from single fruits wereExpand
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Breakdown of an Ant-Plant Mutualism Follows the Loss of Large Herbivores from an African Savanna
Mutualisms are key components of biodiversity and ecosystem function, yet the forces maintaining them are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of removing large mammals on an ant-AcaciaExpand
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Invasibility of experimental habitat Islands in a California winter annual grassland
In an experimental test of plant community invasibility, we introduced seeds of a native ruderal, California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). at fixed density into experimental plots in a CaliforniaExpand
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Changes in Vegetation and Soil Fertility along a Predictable Snowmelt Gradient in the Mosquito Range, Colorado, U. S. A.
Changes in edaphic conditions and vegetation along snowmelt gradients are well known in many alpine areas, but very few studies have used multivariate techniques to document these changes at aExpand
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We assessed the role of growing-season length in regulating absolute and relative cover of six coexisting dominant plant species in an alpine snowbed habitat. To help explain disparity inExpand
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Evolution in stressful environments II: adaptive value and costs of plasticity in response to low light in Sinapis arvensis
Abstract Plants possess a remarkable capacity to alter their phenotype in response to the highly heterogeneous light conditions they commonly encounter in natural environments. In the present studyExpand
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