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Sexual Dimorphism in Flower Size
The petals of male flowers were larger than those of females in less than one-half of the cases, demonstrating that developmental associations are not strictly responsible for patterns of sexual dimorphism and supports the attractive function hypothesis of the perianth.
Interacting Guilds: Moving beyond the Pairwise Perspective on Mutualisms
  • M. Stanton
  • Environmental Science
    The American Naturalist
  • 1 October 2003
A major goal of this symposium is to broaden and shift this pairwise perspective and make it concordant with the emerging view that locally exclusive mutualisms between just two species are the exception and that many communities include guilds of mutualistic species on one or both sides of the interaction.
Seed variation in wild radish: effect of seed size on components of seedling and adult fitness
Two factors that have led to inconsistent results in previous studies of seed size and seedling success are pointed out: differences in the timing of growth measurements, and the presence or absence of competitive inequities among neighbors within the experimental design.
Synergy of multiple partners, including freeloaders, increases host fitness in a multispecies mutualism
It is shown that tree fitness is enhanced by partnering sequentially with sets of different ant symbionts over the ontogeny of a tree, and lifespan inequalities among mutualists may help cooperation persist in the face of exploitation.
Breakdown of an Ant-Plant Mutualism Follows the Loss of Large Herbivores from an African Savanna
The results show that large mammals maintain cooperation within a widespread symbiosis and suggest complex cascading effects of megafaunal extinction.
Invasibility of experimental habitat Islands in a California winter annual grassland
In an experimental test of plant community invasibility, seeds of a native ruderal, California poppy, are introduced at fixed density into experimental plots in a California winter annual grassland and species-rich plots were more invasible.
Effects of natural and simulated herbivory on spine lengths of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya
Experimental evidence is presented supporting the hypothesis that increased spine length in acacia species is a defense induced by herbivory, and branch-specific responses are consistent with the hypotheses that induced defense in this system evolved in the context of within-tree spatial variation in herbivore pressure, in particular variation in branch height.
The results suggest that interspecific differences in growth phenology of coexisting species will promote shifts in snowbed plant communities with climate change within generations, and differences in developmental phenology better predicted species-specific responses to snowmelt schedule than distributional affinities.
Short-term dynamics of an acacia ant community in Laikipia, Kenya
Observed correlations between tree vigor and takeover direction suggest that colony growth of dominant ant species is either favored in more productive microhabitats, or that such colonies differentially seek out healthier trees for conquest.
Changes in Vegetation and Soil Fertility along a Predictable Snowmelt Gradient in the Mosquito Range, Colorado, U. S. A.
Changes in edaphic conditions and vegetation along snowmelt gradients are well known in many alpine areas, but very few studies have used multivariate techniques to document these changes at a