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Inter-examiner Reliability in Caries Trials
A statistical model is given for representing the several components of variability present in measurements (e.g., DMFS scores) given by examiners to patients. Methods for making inferences about theExpand
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Reliability and stability of the orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale.
Patient cooperation is recognized as an important factor in the outcome of orthodontic treatment. In order to predict patient cooperation, there have been numerous studies which have examined itsExpand
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Variables Discriminating Individuals who Seek Orthodontic Treatment
Characteristics differentiating two groups of adolescents were identified: those planning orthodontic treatment and a comparison group not planning treatment. Two separate analyses, for psychosocialExpand
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A dental-facial attractiveness scale. Part I. Reliability and validity.
Since the decision to seek orthodontic treatment is frequently the result of concerns about appearance, assessment of need for treatment should include an impartial evaluation of dental-facialExpand
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A dental-facial attractiveness scale. Part II. Consistency of perception.
A previous report describes the reliability and validity of a scale designed to assess perceptions of dental-facial attractiveness, independent of occlusal function. The purpose of the present studyExpand
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LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF TEST‐WISENESS
Longitudinal studies were conducted to examine test-wiseness (tw) with respect to (a) grade differences, (b) grade by sex interaction, and (c) stability. Included in the tw measure were stem-option,Expand
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GRADE LEVEL, SEX, AND SELECTED ASPECTS OF TEST‐WISENESS1
Measures of four selected aspects of test-wiseness (TW) were constructed for use in grades 5 through 11, and administered to students in two school systems. In each case the grade effects wereExpand
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Risk Taking on Objective Examinations1
In many instances an individual is faced with a set of actions, each of which is associated with a stake to be lost if the action taken is unsuccessful and a prize to be won if the action taken isExpand
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*, **, and ***; statistical nonsense at the .00000 level.
Researchers who report statistical significance with *, **, ***, or p values are confusing statistical significance with clinical significance and are wasting time, money, and energy with studiesExpand
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