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Needle exchange is not enough: lessons from the Vancouver injecting drug use study
Despite having the largest NEP in North America, Vancouver has been experiencing an ongoing HIV epidemic and NEP are crucial for sterile syringe provision, they should be considered one component of a comprehensive programme including counselling, support and education.
Preliminary Evaluation of a Scheme for Grading the Gross Morphology of the Human Intervertebral Disc
A five-category grading scheme for assessing the gross morphology of midsagittal sections of the human lumbar intervertebral disc was developed. The ability of three observers to categorize a series…
Improved survival among HIV-infected individuals following initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
The HIV-infected individuals who receivedInitial therapy with regimens including stavudine or lamivudine had significantly lower mortality and longer AIDS-free survival than those who received initial therapy withregimens limited to zidovudine, didanosine, and zalcitabine.
The Cedar Project: historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.
Hospital utilization and costs in a cohort of injection drug users.
Hospital utilization was significantly higher among community-based IDUs with early HIV disease than among those who were HIV negative and may be reduced with the establishment of programs that integrate harm reduction strategies with primary care and addiction treatment.
Intensive injection cocaine use as the primary risk factor in the Vancouver HIV-1 epidemic
Injection cocaine use was a strong, dose-dependent predictor of HIV seroconversion in this poly-drug using population, and participants who averaged more than three injections per day were seven times more likely to contract HIV.
Incidence of hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users during an outbreak of HIV infection.
- D. Patrick, M. Tyndall, M. O’Shaughnessy
- Medicine, BiologyCMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal…
- 2 October 2001
Because of high transmissibility of HCV among those injecting frequently and using cocaine, the harm reduction initiatives deployed in Vancouver during the study period proved insufficient to eliminate hepatitis C transmission in this population.
Impacts of intensified police activity on injection drug users: Evidence from an ethnographic investigation
Risk factors for elevated HIV incidence among Aboriginal injection drug users in Vancouver.
- K. Craib, P. Spittal, M. Schechter
- MedicineCMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal…
- 7 January 2003
The findings emphasize the urgent need for an appropriate and effective public health strategy--planned and implemented in partnership with Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and the Aboriginal community--to reduce the harms of injection drug use in this population.
HIV-Positive Injection Drug Users Who Leave the Hospital Against Medical Advice: The Mitigating Role of Methadone and Social Support
- A. C. H. Chan, A. Palepu, A. Anis
- Medicine, PsychologyJournal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
- 1 January 2004
Among HIV-positive patients with a history of injection drug use, the odds of leaving the hospital AMA were reduced for subjects who received inpatient methadone treatment, were of older age, or had social supports.