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The biochemistry of somatic hypermutation.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase is the first of a complex series of proteins that introduce point mutations into variable regions of the Ig genes and regulated on many levels by complex mechanisms that are only beginning to be elucidated.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates deoxycytidine on single-stranded DNA but requires the action of RNase
- R. Bransteitter, P. Pham, M. Scharff, M. Goodman
- Biology, ChemistryProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 21 March 2003
It is shown that AID catalyzes deamination of dC residues on single-stranded DNA in vitro but not on double-Stranded DNA, RNA–DNA hybrids, or RNA, suggesting a targeting mechanism for this enigmatic enzyme during somatic hypermutation.
The generation of antibody diversity through somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.
The biochemical mechanism and regulation of SHM and CSR are the topic of this review and are largely targeted to the Ig genes, but their targeting to other genes causes many of the B-cell lymphomas in mice and humans.
The polypeptides of adenovirus. I. Evidence for multiple protein components in the virion and a comparison of types 2, 7A, and 12.
HHLA2 is a member of the B7 family and inhibits human CD4 and CD8 T-cell function
- Ruihua Zhao, Jordan M. Chinai, X. Zang
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 28 May 2013
A unique B7 pathway that is able to inhibit human CD4 and CD8 T-cell proliferation and cytokine production is identified that may afford unique strategies for the treatment of human cancers, autoimmune disorders, infection, and transplant rejection.
Intraclonal Complexity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Fractions Enriched in Recently Born/Divided and Older/Quiescent Cells
These intraclonal analyses suggest a model of CLL cell biology in which the leukemic clone contains a spectrum of cells from the proliferative fraction, enriched in recently divided robust cells that are lymphoids tissue emigrants, to the resting fraction enriched in older, less vital cells that need to immigrate to lymphoid tissue or die.
Altered somatic hypermutation and reduced class-switch recombination in exonuclease 1–mutant mice
It is shown that mice mutant for exonuclease 1 (Exo1), which participates in DNA mismatch repair (MMR), have decreased CSR and changes in the characteristics of SHM similar to those previously observed in mice Mutant for the MMR protein Msh2, which is the first exo1 shown to be involved in SHM and CSR.
Characterization of a Murine Monoclonal Antibody toCryptococcus neoformans Polysaccharide That Is a Candidate for Human Therapeutic Studies
The results show that both the variable and constant regions of MAb 18B7 are biologically functional and support the use of this MAb in human therapeutic trials.
Mammalian Exo1 encodes both structural and catalytic functions that play distinct roles in essential biological processes
- S. Schaetzlein, R. Chahwan, W. Edelmann
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 10 June 2013
It is found that the catalytic function of EXO1 is essential for the DNA damage response, double-strand break repair, chromosomal stability, and tumor suppression, whereasEXO1’s structural role alone is critical for mismatch repair, antibody diversification, and meiosis.
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase turns on somatic hypermutation in hybridomas
The activation of SHM in hybridomas indicates that AID does not require other centroblast-specific cofactors to induce SHM, suggesting either that it functions alone or that the factors it requires are expressed at other stages of B-cell differentiation.