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Postural Hand Synergies for Tool Use
The results suggest that the control of hand posture involves a few postural synergies, regulating the general shape of the hand, coupled with a finer control mechanism providing for small, subtle adjustments.
Review of motor control mechanisms underlying impact absorption from falls.
- M. Santello
- BiologyGait & posture
The control of timing and amplitude of EMG activity in landing movements in humans
The observed pattern of co‐contraction is responsible for increasing ankle joint stiffness as fall height is increased and the attainment of an appropriate level of EMG amplitude seems to be controlled by timing muscle activation at a latency timed from the expected instant of foot contact and varying the rate at which EMG builds up.
Patterns of Hand Motion during Grasping and the Influence of Sensory Guidance
A principal components analysis was developed to provide a concise description of the spatiotemporal patterns underlying the motion of temporal synergies of hand movement and the influence of sensory cues on the control of these synergies.
Hand function: peripheral and central constraints on performance.
Experimental evidence indicates that the simultaneous motion and force of the fingers are characterized by coordination patterns that reduce the number of independent degrees of freedom to be controlled, and peripheral and central constraints in the neuromuscular apparatus have been identified that may in part underlie these coordination patterns.
Visual and non‐visual control of landing movements in humans
It is suggested that vision is important for the very accurate timing of muscle activity onset and the kinematics of landing, and non‐visual sensory information could not fully compensate for the lack of continuous visual feedback and this non-visual information was used to reorganise the motor output.
Gradual molding of the hand to object contours.
The results indicate that the hand is molded only gradually to the contours of an object to be grasped, and suggest that the specification of diverse aspects of a movement does not evolve at a uniform rate.
Influence of fatigue on hand muscle coordination and EMG-EMG coherence during three-digit grasping.
- Alessander Danna-Dos Santos, B. Poston, Mark Jesunathadas, L. R. Bobich, T. M. Hamm, M. Santello
- Biology, PsychologyJournal of neurophysiology
- 1 December 2010
Findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved for modulating and sustaining digit forces in nonfatiguing and fatiguing contractions, respectively.
Effects of end-goal on hand shaping.
- Caterina Ansuini, M. Santello, S. Massaccesi, U. Castiello
- PsychologyJournal of neurophysiology
- 1 April 2006
The present results suggest that hand shaping takes into account end-goal in addition to object geometry, and is discussed in the context of forward internal models that allow the prediction of the sensorimotor consequences of motor commands in advance to their execution.
Force synergies for multifingered grasping
This study studied the control of five-digit grasping by measuring contact forces when subjects lifted, held, and replaced a manipulandum, and revealed a consistent temporal synergy by which digits tended to exert normal forces in phase with each other across all experimental conditions.