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The evolution of mating preferences and the paradox of the lek
There is growing support for direct selection, in which preferences evolve because of their direct effects on female fitness rather than the genetic effects on offspring resulting from mate choice.
The Tungara Frog: A Study in Sexual Selection and Communication
- M. Ryan
- 10 February 1986
Though certain vocalizations allow males to obtain mates and thus should be favored by sexual selection, this study highlights two important costs of such sexual displays: the frogs expand considerable energy in their mating calls, and they advertise their whereabouts to predators.
The Role of Body Size, Phylogeny, and Ambient Noise in the Evolution of Bird Song
There has been an evolutionary response to selection for low-frequency songs by birds in low-forest habitats, according to the constraints of body size and evolutionary history, and the spectral distribution of ambient noise as an additional selective factor is examined.
What do animal signals mean?
Sexual selection, receiver biases, and the evolution of sex differences.
- M. Ryan
- Biology, PsychologyScience
- 25 September 1998
These studies combine animal behavior, sensory biology, phylogenetics, and artificial neural network models to understand why specific phenotypes involved in sexual selection have evolved, rather than merely determining whether such traits and preferences are adaptive.
Patterns of advertisement call evolution in toads and chorus frogs
Observed patterns of character change within sets of close relatives suggest a focus for process-oriented research by identifying the origin and direction of important changes in calling behaviour.
Craniofacial ontogeny in centrosaurine dinosaurs (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae): taxonomic and behavioral implications
An important implication arising directly from this study is that juvenile and sub-adult centrosaurines are difficult to distinguish taxonomically at the specific level.
Energy, calling, and selection
- M. Ryan
- 1 August 1988
These factors constrain the ability of the animal to maximize energy received by the female, and two hypotheses, the good genes hypothesis and the runaway sexual selection hypothesis, are considered to explain the evolution of female choice for signals with greater energy content.