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Methylalkylpyrazines in aposematic insects, their hostplants and mimics
Some aposematic and phytophagous insects apparently sequester pyrazines from their hostplants whereas others, particularly the predatory species, manufacture these substancesde novo.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in arctiid moths (Lep.) with a discussion on host plant relationships and the role of these secondary plant substances in the Arctiidae
It is suggested that the Arctiid moths' own deterrent secretions, directed against vertebrate predators, pre-adapts them for feeding on foliage likewise protected against large herbivores by toxic secondary plant substances such as cardenolides and pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
The biological roles of pyrazines: evidence for a warning odour function
It is demonstrated that naive hatchling chicks, when offered drinking water to which 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine is added, develop a neophobic ‘alerting’ reaction, which suggests that birds, a major group of insect predators, can interpret pyrazines as alerting or warning signals.
Calystegines in Solanum and Datura species and the death's-head hawk-moth (Acherontia atropus)
Polyhydroxylated tropane alkaloids, not hitherto recorded from the potato, were detected in the leaves and tubers of this plant and may be responsible for neurological disorders in livestock.
Assessment of egg load by Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)
It is found that several cues enable the butterfly to ‘assess’ the egg load present on a plant or leaf, and at the appropriate moment switch to the previously less acceptable species, and overloading is avoided.
Pyrazines as warning odour components in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, and in moths of the genera Zygaena and Amata (Lepidoptera)
2-Methoxy-3-alkylpyrazines have been identified as odour components in Danaus plexippus, Zygaena lonicerae and an Australian Amata species, by means of coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,
Cannabis sativa: volatile compounds from pollen and entire male and female plants of two variants, Northern Lights and Hawaian Indica
It is demonstrated that the pollen has a distinct chemical character in possessing two exclusive volatiles, while lacking seven compounds occurring in males and females of both variants.
Acyanoglucoside, sarmentosin, from the magpie moth, Abraxas grossulariata, geometridae: Lepidoptera
A bitter tasting cyanoglucoside, sarmentosin, was isolated from the Magpie moth and the high concentration in the imago suggests a defensive role for this substance.