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Acoel flatworms: earliest extant bilaterian Metazoans, not members of Platyhelminthes.
Sequence data of 18S ribosomal DNA genes from non-fast evolving species of acoels and other metazoans reveal that this group does not belong to the Platyhelminthes but represents the extant members of the earliest divergent Bilateria, an interpretation that is supported by recent studies on the embryonic cleavage pattern and nervous system of acOels.
First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade.
The results obtained represent the first molecular evidence for a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade and indicate the need to review those obtained solely on morphological characters.
Are the Platyhelminthes a monophyletic primitive group? An assessment using 18S rDNA sequences.
It is suggested that parasitic platyhelminthes appeared early in the evolution of the group and form a sister group to a still-unresolved clade made by Nemertodermatida, Lecithoepitheliata, Prolecithophora, Proseriata and Rhabdocoela, and that Seriata is paraphyletic.
Lophotrochozoa internal phylogeny: new insights from an up-to-date analysis of nuclear ribosomal genes
Ribosomal RNA genes are considered a reliable source for the study of deep divergences in the metazoan tree, provided that the data are treated carefully and the LBA effect is minimized.
A phylogenetic analysis of myosin heavy chain type II sequences corroborates that Acoela and Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians
- I. Ruiz-Trillo, J. Paps, M. Riutort
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 12 August 2002
This study demonstrates that Platyhelminthes are polyphyletic and that acoels and nemertodermatids are the extant earliest bilaterians, and that the common bilaterian ancestor was not, as currently held, large and complex but small, simple, and likely with direct development.
Molecular phylogeny of the Platyhelminthes
Phylum-wide analyses based on complete ribosomal and other nuclear genes addressed to answer the main issues facing systematics and phylogeny of Platyhelminthes are reviewed.
Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria
- J. Baguñá, P. Martínez, J. Paps, M. Riutort
- BiologyPhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
- 27 April 2008
The phylogenetic trees obtained corroborate the position of acoel and nemertodermatid flatworms as the earliest branching extant members of the Bilateria and strengthen the view that stem bilaterians were small, acoELomate/pseudocoelomate, benthic organisms derived from planuloid-like organisms.
The Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians and not members of the Platyhelminthes
The results imply that the last common ancestor of bilaterian metazoans was a small, benthic, direct developer without segments, coelomic cavities, nephrida or a true brain.
Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of Acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the Platyhelminthes.
Molecular phylogeny of Geoplaninae (Platyhelminthes) challenges current classification: proposal of taxonomic actions
- F. Carbayo, M. Álvarez‐Presas, C. Olivares, F. Marques, Eudóxia Maria Froehlich, M. Riutort
- 1 September 2013
A phylogenetic hypothesis for selected taxa of Geoplaninae based on the molecular data is presented and discussed in the light of morphological features, and a number of well‐supported clades are unveiling morphologically homogeneous groups.