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Conditioned food aversions: principles and practices, with special reference to social facilitation
Aversive conditioning may provide an effective management tool to prevent animals from eating palatable poisonous plants that cause major economic loss and should be grazing separately from non-averted animals to avoid the influence of social facilitation which can rapidly extinguish aversions.
Locoweed Poisoning in Livestock
Historically toxic species are divided into three groups based on the toxic syndromes observed in livestock: 1) selenium poisoning, 2) nitrotoxin poisoning, and 3) locoism caused by the toxin swainsonine.
Dose Response of Sheep Poisoned with Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)
- B. Stegelmeier, L. James, R. Molyneux
- Medicine, BiologyJournal of veterinary diagnostic investigation…
- 1 September 1999
Both the clinical and histologic lesions, especially cerebellar lesions are suggestive of neurologic dysfunction even at low daily swainsonine doses of 0.2 mg/kg, suggesting that prolonged locoweed exposure,Even at low doses, results in significant production losses as well as histologic and functional damage.
Relationship Between the Endophyte Embellisia spp. and the Toxic Alkaloid Swainsonine in Major Locoweed Species (Astragalus and Oxytropis)
A survey of the major locoweeds from areas where locoweed poisoning has occurred and found species found to contain the fungal endophyte and produce substantial amounts of swainsonine were A. mollissimus, A. cibarius, and O. sericea.
Larkspur poisoning: toxicology and alkaloid structure-activity relationships
The pathogenesis and toxicokinetics of locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) poisoning in livestock.
All tissues of poisoned animals contained swainsonine, and the clearance rates from most tissues was about 20 hours (T1/2 half life), which suggests that poisoned animals should be allowed a 28-day withdrawal to insure complete swains onine clearance.
Plant toxins and palatability to herbivores.
Paper presented at the "Symposium on Ingestion of Poisonous Plants by Livestock," February 15, 1990, Reno, Nevada.
Adverse influence of social facilitation and learning context in training cattle to avoid eating larkspur.
Reinforced aversion was overcome by social facilitation in an unfamiliar field-grazing environment and the aversion was renewed when the heifers were returned to the pen- and group-feeding situation where the aversionwas created.
Total Alkaloid Determinations in Larkspur and Lupine with near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy1
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is used for quality component determinations in forages and grains. However, the use of NIRS to determine antiquality factors in forages has not been…
Alkaloids as anti-quality factors in plants on western U.S. rangelands
Alkaloids constitute the largest class of plant secondary compounds, occurring in 20 to 30% of perennial herbaceous species in North America. Alkaloid-containing plants are of interest, first because…