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A default mode of brain function.
A baseline state of the normal adult human brain in terms of the brain oxygen extraction fraction or OEF is identified, suggesting the existence of an organized, baseline default mode of brain function that is suspended during specific goal-directed behaviors.
The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks.
It is suggested that both task-driven neuronal responses and behavior are reflections of this dynamic, ongoing, functional organization of the brain, featuring the presence of anticorrelated networks in the absence of overt task performance.
Spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging
Recent studies examining spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging as a potentially important and revealing manifestation of spontaneous neuronal activity are reviewed.
Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain
This work explores the possibility that there might be a baseline or resting state of brain function involving a specific set of mental operations, including the manner in which a baseline is defined and the implications of such a baseline for the understanding ofbrain function.
Distinct brain networks for adaptive and stable task control in humans
The interactions of these regions are characterized by applying graph theory to resting state functional connectivity MRI data, suggesting the presence of two distinct task-control networks that appear to operate on different time scales and affect downstream processing via dissociable mechanisms.
Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: Relation to a default mode of brain function
The presence of self-referential mental activity appears to be associated with increases from the baseline in dorsal MPFC, and reductions in ventral MPFC occurred consistent with the fact that attention-demanding tasks attenuate emotional processing.
Common Blood Flow Changes across Visual Tasks: II. Decreases in Cerebral Cortex
Nine previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies of human visual information processing were reanalyzed to determine the consistency across experiments of blood flow decreases during active
Evidence for a frontoparietal control system revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity.
Detailed analysis of frontal and parietal cortex revealed clear evidence for contiguous but distinct regions: in general, the regions associated with the frontoparietal control system are situated between components of the dorsal attention and hippocampal-cortical memory systems.
Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems.
It is demonstrated that the neuroanatomical substrates of human attention persist in the absence of external events, reflected in the correlation structure of spontaneous activity.
Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders
Using positron emission tomographic images of cerebral blood flow and rate of glucose metabolism to measure brain activity, an area of abnormally decreased activity is localized in the pre-frontal cortex ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum in both familial bipolar depressives and familial unipolar depressives.