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Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.
These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift.
Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade.
- L. Pereira, V. Macaulay, A. Torroni, R. Scozzari, M. Prata, A. Amorim
- HistoryAnnals of human genetics
- 1 September 2001
The forced displacement of Mozambicans as part of the slave trade generated a differential input of eastern African sequences into the mtDNA pools of the Americas and of Europe, as testified to by the greater number of sequence matches between Mozambique and the Americas, compared to those between Moz Ambique and Europe.
Diversity of mtDNA lineages in Portugal: not a genetic edge of European variation
It is hypothesised that the recent Black African slave trade could have been the mediator of most of the L sequence inputs, while the population movement associated with the Muslim rule of Iberia has predominantly introduced U6 lineages.
Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial haplogroup L3e: a snapshot of African prehistory and Atlantic slave trade.
It is concluded that haplogroup L3e originated in central or eastern Africa about 46,000 (+/-14,000) years ago, and was a hitchhiker of much later dispersal and local expansion events, with the rise of food production and iron smelting.
Bantu and European Y-lineages in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- L. Pereira, L. Gusmão, C. Alves, A. Amorim, M. Prata
- Environmental ScienceAnnals of human genetics
- 1 November 2002
Haplotype matching performed for Y-STR haplotypes in several sub-Saharan populations allowed the confirmation of a putative founder haplotype, and its one-step neighbours, of Bantu origin, and detected an increasing drift towards the south, with a stronger reduction of diversity along the western coast.
Mitochondrial portrait of the Cabo Verde archipelago: the Senegambian outpost of Atlantic slave trade
The total Cabo Verde sample clearly displays the characteristic mitochondrial features of the Atlantic fringe of western Africa and testifies to almost no mitochondrial input from the Portuguese colonizers.
A Perspective on the History of the Iberian Gypsies Provided by Phylogeographic Analysis of Y‐Chromosome Lineages
Among the Portuguese Gypsies the proportion of introgression from host populations is higher than observed in other groups, a fact which is somewhat unexpected since the arrival of the Roma to Portugal is documented to be more recent than in Central or East Europe.
Mannose-6-phosphate pathway: a review on its role in lysosomal function and dysfunction.
Reconstructing the Indian Origin and Dispersal of the European Roma: A Maternal Genetic Perspective
The results show that the maternal lineage composition in the Roma groups follows a pattern of different migration routes, with several founder effects, and low effective population sizes along their dispersal.