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Comparative genome and phenotypic analysis of Clostridium difficile 027 strains provides insight into the evolution of a hypervirulent bacterium
BackgroundThe continued rise of Clostridium difficile infections worldwide has been accompanied by the rapid emergence of a highly virulent clone designated PCR-ribotype 027. To understand more aboutExpand
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Clostridium perfringens: toxinotype and genotype.
Clostridium perfringens is a ubiquitous pathogen that produces many toxins and hydrolytic enzymes. Because the toxin-encoding genes can be located on extrachromosomal elements or in variable regionsExpand
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Production of a complete binary toxin (actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase) by Clostridium difficile CD196.
A Clostridium difficile isolate was found to produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (CDT) homologous to the enzymatic components of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and ClostridiumExpand
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Beta2 toxin, a novel toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens.
A novel toxin (Beta2) and its gene were characterized from a Clostridium perfringens strain isolated from a piglet with necrotic enteritis. At the amino-acid level, Beta2 toxin (27670 Da) has noExpand
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Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins
SUMMARY Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic “A-B” paradigm for protein toxins. The binaryExpand
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Production of actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (binary toxin) by strains of Clostridium difficile.
In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB) certain strains of Clostridium difficile produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, or binary toxin. PCR reactions wereExpand
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The mammalian G protein rhoC is ADP‐ribosylated by Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and affects actin microfilaments in Vero cells.
Clostridium botulinum C3 is a recently discovered exoenzyme that ADP‐ribosylates a eukaryotic GTP‐binding protein of the ras superfamily. We show now that the bacterially‐expressed product of theExpand
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Prevalence of β2-Toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in Horses with Intestinal Disorders
ABSTRACT The incidence of a new, yet unassigned toxin type ofClostridium perfringens containing the genes for the α-toxin and the recently described β2-toxin in horses with intestinal disorders isExpand
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Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore‐forming toxin
  • M. Popoff
  • Biology, Medicine
  • The FEBS journal
  • 1 December 2011
Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by strains of Clostridium perfringens classified as type B or type D. ETX belongs to the heptameric β‐pore‐forming toxins including aerolysin and Clostridium septicumExpand
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Requirement of Rac1 and Rac2 Expression by Mature Dendritic Cells for T Cell Priming
Upon maturation, dendritic cells (DCs) acquire the unique ability to activate naïve T cells. We used time-lapse video microscopy and two-photon imaging of intact lymph nodes to showthat afterExpand
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