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Formation of the Giant Planets by Concurrent Accretion of Solids and Gas
New numerical simulations of the formation of the giant of the second phase. planets are presented, in which for the first time both the gas and The actual rates at which the giant planets accretedExpand
On the Location of the Snow Line in a Protoplanetary Disk
In a protoplanetary disk, the inner edge of the region where the temperature falls below the condensation temperature of water is referred to as the snow line. Outside the snow line, water iceExpand
Formation of Jupiter using opacities based on detailed grain physics
Abstract Numerical simulations, based on the core-nucleated accretion model, are presented for the formation of Jupiter at 5.2 AU in three primordial disks with three different assumed values of theExpand
The contribution of icy grains to the activity of comets: I. Grain lifetime and distribution
Abstract We have developed a computer code (GEM—grain evolution model) to simulate the behavior of ice grains in a comet coma. The grains are assumed to be composed of water–ice with an admixture ofExpand
Interactions of planetesimals with protoplanetary atmospheres
Abstract We compute the interaction of planetesimals with the envelopes of growing giant planets that form by the “core-instability” mechanism. According to this mechanism, a core grows by theExpand
Further investigations of random models of Uranus and Neptune
Abstract We present a series of computer models for Uranus and Neptune where the interior density distribution is randomly chosen. The only constraints placed on the distribution are that the densityExpand
Interior Models of Uranus and Neptune
"Empirical" models (pressure versus density) of Uranus and Neptune interiors constrained by the gravitational coefficients J 2, J 4, the planetary radii and masses, and Voyager solid-body rotationExpand
Modeling the structure and activity of comet nuclei
Numerical simulation of the structure and evolution of a comet nucleus is reviewed from both the mathematical and the physical point of view. Various mathematical procedures and approximations areExpand
Comparative models of Uranus and Neptune
Abstract Models of Uranus and Neptune are computed based on the assumption that these planets consist of three layers: a rock core, an ice shell, and an atmosphere. Uranus models require that the iceExpand
The interior of Neptune
Neptune, together with Uranus, belongs to the ice-rich class of Jovian planets. Although molecular hydrogen is the dominant species in its atmosphere, all available evidence points toward anExpand