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Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes
The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages.
HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal
A clear and consistent genetic classification of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) strains continues to be of great utility in epidemiological tracking of the AIDS pandemic and in vaccine
Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1
By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.
Multiple Diverse Circoviruses Infect Farm Animals and Are Commonly Found in Human and Chimpanzee Feces
It is shown that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, including humans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission.
The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations
Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, it is shown that from the 1920s Kinshasa was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere.
Risk to Human Health from a Plethora of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses in Primate Bushmeat
These data document for the first time that a substantial proportion of wild monkeys in Cameroon are SIV infected and that humans who hunt and handle bushmeat are exposed to a plethora of genetically highly divergent viruses.
Nef-Mediated Suppression of T Cell Activation Was Lost in a Lentiviral Lineage that Gave Rise to HIV-1
It is reported that nef alleles from the great majority of primate lentiviruses, including HIV-2, downmodulate TCR-CD3 from infected T cells, thereby blocking their responsiveness to activation, and that Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost during viral evolution in a lineage that gave rise to HIV-1.
Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas
Findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.
Isolation and partial characterization of an HIV-related virus occurring naturally in chimpanzees in Gabon.
Nucleic acid hybridization experiments appear to indicate that the retrovirus isolated from wild-born chimpanzees, designated SIVcpz-GAB-1 (simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzee), is different from HIV-1 and HIV-2 and the other SIVs.