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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
A set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes are presented.
Escape of Intracellular Shigella from Autophagy
- M. Ogawa, T. Yoshimori, Toshihiko Suzuki, H. Sagara, N. Mizushima, C. Sasakawa
- Biology, MedicineScience
- 4 February 2005
Shigella, an invasive bacteria, was found to be able to escape autophagy by secreting IcsB by means of the type III secretion system, and Mutant bacteria lacking ICSB were trapped by autophagic during multiplication within the host cells.
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
Differential Regulation of Caspase-1 Activation, Pyroptosis, and Autophagy via Ipaf and ASC in Shigella-Infected Macrophages
Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β processing induced by Shigella are mediated through Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family, and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC).
Listeria monocytogenes ActA-mediated escape from autophagic recognition
It is shown that recruitment of the Arp2/3 complex and Ena/VASP, via the bacterial ActA protein, to the bacterial surface disguises the bacteria from autophagic recognition, an activity that is independent of the ability to mediate bacterial motility.
Bacteria hijack integrin-linked kinase to stabilize focal adhesions and block cell detachment
Infection of guinea pig colons with Shigella corroborated the pivotal role of the OspE–ILK interaction in suppressing epithelial detachment, increasing bacterial cell-to-cell spreading, and promoting bacterial colonization.
Shigella Spa33 Is an Essential C-ring Component of Type III Secretion Machinery*
- T. Morita-Ishihara, M. Ogawa, H. Sagara, Mitutaka Yoshida, E. Katayama, C. Sasakawa
- BiologyJournal of Biological Chemistry
- 6 January 2006
Genetic and functional analyses of the Spa33 C-terminal region indicate that some of the conserved residues are crucial for needle formation via interactions with MxiN, and plays a central role as the C-ring component in recruiting/exporting TTSM-associated proteins.
Bacteria and host interactions in the gut epithelial barrier.
An overview of the components of the mucosal barrier is provided and the bacterial stratagems that circumvent these barriers are discussed with particular emphasis on the roles of bacterial effector proteins.
A Tecpr1-dependent selective autophagy pathway targets bacterial pathogens.
The Shigella flexneri effector OspI deamidates UBC13 to dampen the inflammatory response
OspI, a Shigella flexneri effector encoded by ORF169b on the large plasmid and delivered by the type ΙΓΙΙ secretion system, dampens acute inflammatory responses during bacterial invasion by suppressing the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-mediated signalling pathway.