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Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation
Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation meansExpand
Evolutionary games and spatial chaos
MUCH attention has been given to the Prisoners' Dilemma as a metaphor for the problems surrounding the evolution of coopera-tive behaviour1–6. This work has dealt with the relative merits of variousExpand
Evolutionary Dynamics: Exploring the Equations of Life
Preface 1. Introduction 2. What Evolution Is 3. Fitness Landscapes and Sequence Spaces 4. Evolutionary Games 5. Prisoners of the Dilemma 6. Finite Populations 7. Games in Finite Populations 8.Expand
Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
Neutralizing antibodies (Nab) are a principal component of an effective human immune response to many pathogens, yet their role in HIV-1 infection is unclear. To gain a better understanding of thisExpand
Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring
Darwinian evolution has to provide an explanation for cooperative behaviour. Theories of cooperation are based on kin selection (dependent on genetic relatedness),, group selection and reciprocalExpand
Spontaneous giving and calculated greed
Cooperation is central to human social behaviour. However, choosing to cooperate requires individuals to incur a personal cost to benefit others. Here we explore the cognitive basis of cooperativeExpand
Virus dynamics: Mathematical principles of immunology and virology
Preface 1. Introduction: Viruses, immunity, equations 2. HIV 3. The basic model of virus dynamics 4. Anti-viral drug therapy 5. Dynamics of hepatitis B virus 6. Dynamics of immune responses 7. HowExpand
Presence of an inducible HIV-1 latent reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the form of triple combinations of drugs including protease inhibitors can reduce the plasma viral load of some HIV-1-infected individuals toExpand
Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations
To explain the evolution of cooperation by natural selection has been a major goal of biologists since Darwin. Cooperators help others at a cost to themselves, while defectors receive the benefits ofExpand
A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks
A fundamental aspect of all biological systems is cooperation. Cooperative interactions are required for many levels of biological organization ranging from single cells to groups of animals. HumanExpand