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Host defense mechanisms triggered by microbial lipoproteins through toll-like receptors.
The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, theExpand
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Expression of Borrelia burgdorferi OspC and DbpA is controlled by a RpoN–RpoS regulatory pathway
RpoS and RpoN are two alternative sigma factors typically associated with general stress responses in bacteria. To date, there has been no experimental evidence that RpoS and RpoN can directlyExpand
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The response regulator Rrp2 is essential for the expression of major membrane lipoproteins in Borrelia burgdorferi
Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the agent of Lyme disease, exists in nature through a complex enzootic life cycle that involves both ticks and mammals. As Bb transitions between its two diverse niches,Expand
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DNA microarray analysis of differential gene expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete
DNA microarrays were used to survey the adaptive genetic responses of Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) B31, the Lyme disease spirochete, when grown under conditions analogous to those found in unfed ticksExpand
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The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host
The Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in a tick–mouse cycle. Here we show that B. burgdorferi usurps a tick salivary protein, Salp15 (ref. 3), to facilitate the infection ofExpand
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OspC facilitates Borrelia burgdorferi invasion of Ixodes scapularis salivary glands.
Outer surface protein C (OspC) is a differentially expressed major surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi. ospC is swiftly upregulated when spirochetes leave the Ixodes scapularis tick gut,Expand
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Interdependence of environmental factors influencing reciprocal patterns of gene expression in virulent Borrelia burgdorferi
The paradigm for differential antigen expression in Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is the reciprocal expression of its outer surface (lipo)proteins (Osp) A and C; as B. burgdorferiExpand
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Essential Role for OspA/B in the Life Cycle of the Lyme Disease Spirochete
The molecular basis of how Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the Lyme disease spirochete, maintains itself in nature via a complex life cycle in ticks and mammals is poorly understood. Outer surfaceExpand
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A new animal model for studying Lyme disease spirochetes in a mammalian host-adapted state.
There is now substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, undergoes major alterations in antigenic composition as it cycles between its arthropod and mammalian hosts.Expand
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Cyclic di-GMP is Essential for the Survival of the Lyme Disease Spirochete in Ticks
Cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that modulates many biological processes. Although its role in bacterial pathogenesis during mammalian infection has been documented, theExpand
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