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Molecular mechanisms of antibody somatic hypermutation.
Functional antibody genes are assembled by V-D-J joining and then diversified by somatic hypermutation. This hypermutation results from stepwise incorporation of single nucleotide substitutions intoExpand
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Immunoglobulin Isotype Switching Is Inhibited and Somatic Hypermutation Perturbed in UNG-Deficient Mice
BACKGROUND We have previously proposed that deamination of cytosine to uracil at sites within the immunoglobulin loci by activation-induced deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification. TheExpand
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Mutational Processes Molding the Genomes of 21 Breast Cancers
Summary All cancers carry somatic mutations. The patterns of mutation in cancer genomes reflect the DNA damage and repair processes to which cancer cells and their precursors have been exposed. ToExpand
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DNA Deamination Mediates Innate Immunity to Retroviral Infection
CEM15/APOBEC3G is a cellular protein required for resistance to infection by virion infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, using a murine leukemia virusExpand
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Mismatch recognition and uracil excision provide complementary paths to both Ig switching and the A/T-focused phase of somatic mutation.
AID-mediated deamination of dC residues within the immunoglobulin locus generates dU:dG lesions whose resolution leads to class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. The dU:dG pair is aExpand
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Evolution of the AID/APOBEC family of polynucleotide (deoxy)cytidine deaminases.
The AID/APOBEC family (comprising AID, APOBEC1, APOBEC2, and APOBEC3 subgroups) contains members that can deaminate cytidine in RNA and/or DNA and exhibit diverse physiological functions (AID andExpand
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B cells acquire antigen from target cells after synapse formation
Soluble antigen binds to the B-cell antigen receptor and is internalized for subsequent processing and the presentation of antigen-derived peptides to T cells. Many antigens are not soluble, however,Expand
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The Vif Protein of HIV Triggers Degradation of the Human Antiretroviral DNA Deaminase APOBEC3G
APOBEC3G is a human cellular enzyme that is incorporated into retroviral particles and acts to restrict retroviral replication in infected cells by deaminating dC to dU in the first (minus)-strandExpand
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AID mutates E. coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversification
After gene rearrangement, immunoglobulin variable genes are diversified by somatic hypermutation or gene conversion, whereas the constant region is altered by class-switch recombination. All threeExpand
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