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Crosstalk of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB signaling
The regulation of ROS levels by NF-κB targets and various ways in which ROS have been proposed to impact NF-σκB signaling pathways are reviewed.
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
There continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes, so it is important to update guidelines for monitoring autophagic activity in different organisms.
TNF-induced activation of the Nox1 NADPH oxidase and its role in the induction of necrotic cell death.
The function of TRADD in signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptors
It is found here that TRADD serves an important function in tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling by orchestrating the formation of TNFR1 signaling complexes.
MicroRNAs modulate the noncanonical transcription factor NF-kappaB pathway by regulating expression of the kinase IKKalpha during macrophage differentiation.
During human monocyte-macrophage differentiation, the expression of the microRNAs miR-223, MiR-15a, andMiR-16 is dramatically decreased, leading to increased expression ofThe serine-threonine kinase IKKα in macrophages.
Methylation-dependent loss of RIP3 expression in cancer represses programmed necrosis in response to chemotherapeutics
This work shows that programmed necrosis is activated in response to many chemotherapeutic agents and contributes to chemotherapy-induced cell death, and proposes that RIP3-deficient cancer patients may benefit from receiving hypomethylating agents to induce RIP3 expression prior to treatment with conventional Chemotherapeutics.
Mediation of the DCC Apoptotic Signal by DIP13α*
The data suggest that DIP13α is a mediator of the DCC apoptotic pathway, and inhibition of endogenous Dip13αexpression by small interfering RNA blocks DCC-induced apoptosis.
Induction of autophagy is essential for monocyte-macrophage differentiation.
It is found that the differentiation signal releases Beclin1 from Bcl-2 by activating JNK and blocks Atg5 cleavage, both of which are critical for the induction of autophagy, which results in apoptosis of cells that are engaged in differentiation.
Reactive oxygen species in TNFα-induced signaling and cell death
The role of sustained JNK activation potentiated by ROS is discussed, which generally is supportive of apoptosis and “necrotic cell death” through various mechanisms, while ROS could have inhibitory or stimulatory roles in NF-κB signaling.
Autophagy inhibition improves chemosensitivity in BRAF(V600E) brain tumors.
A pediatric case in which deliberate autophagy inhibition halted tumor growth and overcame acquired BRAF-inhibition resistance is presented and it is demonstrated that chloroquine can improve vemurafenib sensitivity in a resistant ex vivo primary culture and provide the first demonstration in a patient harboring the V600E mutation treated with vemurfenib that the addition of chlorine can improve clinical outcomes.