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Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations
Two channelrhodopsins, Chronos and Chrimson, are described, discovered through sequencing and physiological characterization of opsins from over 100 species of alga, that enable two-color activation of neural spiking and downstream synaptic transmission in independent neural populations without detectable cross-talk in mouse brain slice. Expand
Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants
Strong and robust support is found for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated. Expand
Molecular phylogeny and classification of the Mamiellophyceae class. nov. (Chlorophyta) based on sequence comparisons of the nuclear- and plastid-encoded rRNA operons.
The study resolved all major clades within the Mamiellophyceae, identified molecular signature sequences for most clades through an exhaustive search for non-homoplasious synapomorphies and incorporated these signatures into the diagnoses of two novel orders. Expand
Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure.
Sequence comparisons and a revised classification of the Euglenophyceae were based on 92 new SSU rDNA sequences obtained from strains of Euglena, Astasia, Phacus, Trachelomonas, Colacium, Cryptoglena, Lepocinclis, EUTreptia, Eutreptiella and TetreutrePTia, and one lineage was recognized as the previously neglected genus Monomorphina Mereschkowsky (1877). Expand
Chromatophore Genome Sequence of Paulinella Sheds Light on Acquisition of Photosynthesis by Eukaryotes
The chromatophore genome is characterized as a photosynthetic entity that is absolutely dependent on its host for growth and survival and is the only known cyanobacterial descendants besides plastids with a significantly reduced genome that confer photosynthesis to their eukaryotic host. Expand
Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and description of Oogamochlamys gen. nov. and Lobochlamys
The polyphyletic Chloromonas (traditionally defined as "Chlamydomonas without pyrenoids") can be legitimized as a monophyletic genus by restriction to this clade and is here emended on the basis of chloroplast characters. Expand
All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins
The Optopatch platform enables high-throughput, spatially resolved electrophysiology without the use of conventional electrodes and revealed homeostatic tuning of intrinsic excitability in human stem cell–derived neurons. Expand
The ultrastructure of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii basal apparatus: identification of an early marker of radial asymmetry inherent in the basal body
The early harbinger of radial asymmetry described here could play a crucial role during basal body maturation by orienting the asymmetric attachment of the various associated fibers and therefore might define the orientation of the basal bodies and, ultimately, the direction of flagellar beating. Expand
Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?
A large data set of nuclear-encoded genes from 40 green plant taxa including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae is used to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophical algal lineages, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zyghmatales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophyts. Expand
Temperature dependency of long-chain alkenone distributions in recent to fossil limnic sediments and in lake waters
Distribution patterns of C37 and C38 polyunsaturated long-chain alkenones (LCAs) serve as proxies for the determination of paleotemperatures for marine surface waters. We studied Recent/Subrecent andExpand