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Epigenetic programming by maternal behavior
It is shown that an epigenomic state of a gene can be established through behavioral programming, and it is potentially reversible, suggesting a causal relation among epigenomicState, GR expression and the maternal effect on stress responses in the offspring.
Epigenetics and the biological definition of gene x environment interactions.
  • M. Meaney
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Child development
  • 2010
This review focuses on the enduring effects of naturally occurring variations in maternal care on gene expression and phenotype to provide an example of environmentally driven plasticity at the level of the DNA, revealing the interdependence of gene and environmental in the regulation of phenotype.
Variations in maternal care in the rat as a mediating influence for the effects of environment on development
Findings indicate considerable, normal variations in licking/grooming in the rat that are a stable, individual characteristic of rat dams.
Maternal care, hippocampal synaptogenesis and cognitive development in rats
The offspring of mothers that show high levels of pup licking and grooming and arched-back nursing showed increased expression of NMDA receptor subunit and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, increased cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus and enhanced spatial learning and memory.
Maturation of the adrenocortical stress response: Neuroendocrine control mechanisms and the stress hyporesponsive period
This work has attempted to explain adrenocortical activity during this period in terms of the unique pattern of glucocorticoid-receptor concentrations that exist in the brain and pituitary of the neonatal rat, which ensures the low, stable corticoid levels that appear to be optimal for neuronal development in glucocortex-sensitive brain regions.
Deactivation of the Limbic System During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Evidence from Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
A model is proposed where the observed reduction in limbic system activity is essential for the initiation of the stress response, and suggests elevated activation at rest and during nonstressful situations.
The Effects of Early Rearing Environment on the Development of GABAA and Central Benzodiazepine Receptor Levels and Novelty-Induced Fearfulness in the Rat
It is suggested that early life events influence the development of the GABAA receptor system, thus altering the expression of fearfulness in adulthood.
Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits
Elevated glucocorticoid levels produce hippocampal dysfunction and correlate with individual deficits in spatial learning in aged rats. Previously we related persistent cortisol increases to memory
Development of adult ethanol preference and anxiety as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long Evans rats and reversal with antidepressant treatment
Observations suggest that this maternal separation paradigm is a good model to study the effects of early adverse experience on the development of alcohol preference and anxiety.
Influence of early postnatal rearing conditions on mesocorticolimbic dopamine and behavioural responses to psychostimulants and stressors in adult rats
Findings provide compelling evidence that disruptions in early postnatal rearing conditions can lead to profound and lasting changes in the responsiveness of mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons to stress and psychostimulants, and suggest a neurobiological basis for individual differences in vulnerability to compulsive drug taking.