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A three-dimensional plasma and energetic particle investigation for the wind spacecraft
This instrument is designed to make measurements of the full three-dimensional distribution of suprathermal electrons and ions from solar wind plasma to low energy cosmic rays, with high sensitivity,Expand
Electric field magnitudes and lightning initiation in thunderstorms
Lightning may be initiated via an electron avalanche that may occur when energetic electrons (∼1 MeV) are accelerated by thunderstorm electric fields to velocities sufficient to produce new energeticExpand
First multispacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth's magnetosphere with the identical Cluster ion spectrometry (CIS) experiment
Abstract. On board the four Cluster spacecraft, the Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) experiment measures the full, three-dimensional ion distribution of the major magnetospheric ions (H+, He+, He++,Expand
Tracing the topology of the October 18–20, 1995, magnetic cloud with ∼0.1–10² keV electrons
Five solar impulsive ∼1–10² keV electron events were detected while the WIND spacecraft was inside the magnetic cloud observed upstream of the Earth on October 18–20, 1995. The solar type III radioExpand
Further observations of X-rays inside thunderstorms
A control and an x-ray detector were flown into thunderstorms in 1984. The x-ray detector found statistically significant radiation flux increases in the energy range 5 to > 110 keV for timeExpand
X‐ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon‐borne germanium spectrometer
[1] The high-resolution germanium detector aboard the MAXIS (MeV Auroral X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) balloon payload detected nine X-ray bursts with significant flux extending above 0.5 MeVExpand
First detection of a terrestrial MeV X-ray burst
We report the first detection of a terrestrial X-ray burst extending up to MeV energies, made by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled germanium detector (∼2 keV FWHM resolution) on a high-altitude balloon atExpand
Wind Spacecraft Observations of Solar Impulsive Electron Events Associated with Solar Type III Radio Bursts
We present Wind spacecraft observations of solar impulsive electron events associated with locally generated Langmuir waves during solar type III radio bursts. The solar impulsive electrons hadExpand
Strong Electric Fields from Positive Lightning Strokes in the Stratosphere: Implications for Sprites
[1] A balloon payload launched in Brazil has measured vector electric fields from lightning at least an order of magnitude larger than previously reported above 30 km in the stratosphere. During theExpand
Predicting lightning-driven quasi-electrostatic fields at sprite altitudes using in situ measurements and a numerical model
[1] Data from the largest electric field change (>140 V/m) above 30 km ever published, correlated with two positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes, are compared with an axi-symmetricExpand