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Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein
Viruses have developed diverse non-immune strategies to counteract host-mediated mechanisms that confer resistance to infection. The Vif (virion infectivity factor) proteins are encoded by primateExpand
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Cytidine Deamination of Retroviral DNA by Diverse APOBEC Proteins
The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G edits both nascent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) reverse transcripts, resulting in loss of infectivity. The HIV Vif proteinExpand
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The HIV-1 Rev protein.
The nuclear export of intron-containing HIV-1 RNA is critically dependent on the activity of Rev, a virally encoded sequence-specific RNA-binding protein. Rev shuttles between the nucleus and theExpand
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The HIV-1 rev trans-activator acts through a structured target sequence to activate nuclear export of unspliced viral mRNA
HUMAN immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication requires the expression of two classes of viral mRNA. The early class of HIV-1 transcripts is fully spliced and encodes viral regulatory geneExpand
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DNA Deamination Mediates Innate Immunity to Retroviral Infection
CEM15/APOBEC3G is a cellular protein required for resistance to infection by virion infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, using a murine leukemia virusExpand
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The antiretroviral enzyme APOBEC3G is degraded by the proteasome in response to HIV-1 Vif
The human protein apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme–catalytic polypeptide-like-3G (APOBEC3G), also known as CEM-15, mediates a newly described form of innate resistance to retroviral infection byExpand
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Functional dissection of the HIV-1 Rev trans-activator—Derivation of a trans-dominant repressor of Rev function
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a nuclear trans-activator, termed Rev, that is required for the expression of the viral structural proteins and, hence, for viral replication. TheExpand
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Human MX2 is an interferon-induced post-entry inhibitor of HIV-1 infection
Animal cells harbour multiple innate effector mechanisms that inhibit virus replication. For the pathogenic retrovirus human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), these include widely expressedExpand
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HIV-1 accessory proteins--ensuring viral survival in a hostile environment.
One of the features of primate immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs and SIVs) that distinguishes them from other retroviruses is the array of "accessory" proteins they encode. Here, we discuss recentExpand
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