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  • Influence
Motivated Skepticism in the Evaluation of Political Beliefs
We propose a model of motivated skepticism that helps explain when and why citizens are biased-information processors. Two experimental studies explore how citizens evaluate arguments aboutExpand
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The Rationalizing Voter
Political behavior is the result of innumerable unnoticed forces and conscious deliberation is often a rationalization of automatically triggered feelings and thoughts. Citizens are very sensitive toExpand
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An Impression-Driven Model of Candidate Evaluation
We describe and test two process models of candidate evaluation. The memory-based model holds that evaluations are dependent on the mix of pro and con information retrieved from memory. TheExpand
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The Automaticity of Affect for Political Leaders, Groups, and Issues: An Experimental Test of the Hot Cognition Hypothesis
We report the results of three experimental tests of the “hot cognition” hypothesis, which posits that all sociopolitical concepts that have been evaluated in the past are affectively charged andExpand
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Elements of Reason: Three Steps toward a Theory of Motivated Political Reasoning
The human understanding, when it has once adopted an opinion … draws all things else to support and agree with it. Though there may be (more) instances to be found on the other side, yet these itExpand
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The Responsive Voter: Campaign Information and the Dynamics of Candidate Evaluation
We find strong support for an on-line model of the candidate evaluation process that in contrast to memory-based models shows that citizens are responsive to campaign information, adjusting theirExpand
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Threat, Authoritarianism, and Selective Exposure to Information
We examined the hypothesis that threat alters the cognitive strategies used by high authoritarians in seeking out new political information from the environment. In a laboratory experiment, threatExpand
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On-line processing in candidate evaluation: The effects of issue order, issue importance, and sophistication
This article reports the results of a study that replicates and extends the impression-driven model of candidate evaluation reported in Lodge, McGraw, and Stroh (1989). This model holds thatExpand
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A Partisan Schema for Political Information Processing
Based on their interest in politics and knowledge of political leaders, individuals are classified into three levels of partisan sophistication: (1) those scoring high in interest and knowledgeExpand
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The Breadth, Depth, and Utility of Class, Partisan, and Ideological Schemata *
Given the complexity and ambiguity ofthings political, there are many ways to think about government and politics. The authors compare class, partisan, and ideological schemata in terms of cognitiveExpand
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