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Variable tandem repeats accelerate evolution of coding and regulatory sequences.
TLDR
An underestimated third class of genotypic variation: changes in microsatellite and minisatellite repeats is discussed, which combine characteristics of genetic and epigenetic changes that may facilitate organismal evolvability.
Pandoraviruses: Amoeba Viruses with Genomes Up to 2.5 Mb Reaching That of Parasitic Eukaryotes
TLDR
The isolation of two giant viruses, one off the coast of central Chile, the other from a freshwater pond near Melbourne, without morphological or genomic resemblance to any previously defined virus families are reported.
Distant Mimivirus relative with a larger genome highlights the fundamental features of Megaviridae
TLDR
Megavirus chilensis is presented, a giant virus isolated off the coast of Chile, but capable of replicating in fresh water acanthamoeba and exhibits three additional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes adding strong support to the previous suggestion that the Mimivirus/Megav virus lineage evolved from an ancestral cellular genome by reductive evolution.
Thirty-thousand-year-old distant relative of giant icosahedral DNA viruses with a pandoravirus morphology
TLDR
A third type of giant virus combining the Pandoravirus morphology with a gene content more similar to that of icosahedral DNA viruses is isolated from a >30,000-y-old radiocarbon-dated sample of Siberian permafrost, suggesting that pandorav virus-like particles may correspond to an unexplored diversity of unconventional DNA virus families.
Unstable Tandem Repeats in Promoters Confer Transcriptional Evolvability
TLDR
A search for tandem repeats in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome revealed that the nucleosome-free region directly upstream of genes (the promoter region) is enriched in repeats, which provides a mechanism for rapid evolution of phenotypic traits.
Sequence-based estimation of minisatellite and microsatellite repeat variability.
TLDR
A model, "SERV," that predicts the variability of a broad range of tandem repeats in a wide range of organisms and demonstrates significant enrichment of variable repeats within human genes involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, morphogenesis, and neurogenesis.
Sequence determinants in human polyadenylation site selection
TLDR
The availability of complete genomes and large EST sequence databases now permit large-scale observation of polyadenylation sites, and both U-rich sequences flanking both sides of poly(A) signals contribute to the definition of "true" sites.
Genome-Wide Analysis of Heteroduplex DNA in Mismatch Repair–Deficient Yeast Cells Reveals Novel Properties of Meiotic Recombination Pathways
TLDR
It is observed that COs are associated with complex hDNA patterns, confirming that the canonical double-strand break repair model is not sufficient to explain the formation of most COs, and proposed that multiple factors contribute to the complexity of recombination intermediates.
mRNA deep sequencing reveals 75 new genes and a complex transcriptional landscape in Mimivirus.
TLDR
This RNA-seq study confirmed the AAAATTGA sequence as an early promoter element, as well as the presence of palindromes at most of the polyadenylation sites, and revealed a new promoter element correlating with late gene expression, which is also prominent in Sputnik, the recently described Mimivirus "virophage".
Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes
TLDR
In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, signs of selection in specific proteins and residues are found, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. saponin, confirming previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSv-1 genome.
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