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Quotas for women in politics
1. Introduction to Gender Quotas 2. The Adoption of Gender Quotas 3. The Implementation of Gender Quotas 4. Reserved Seats in Pakistan and India 5. Party Quotas in Sweden and the United Kingdom 6.Expand
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This article seeks to rethink how scholars have traditionally studied women's substantive representation. It outlines a framework that aims to replace questions like ‘Do women represent women?’ withExpand
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Rethinking the life cycles of international norms: The United Nations and the global promotion of gender equality
The diffusion of international norms and their effects on policy and political behaviour are central research questions in international relations. Informed by constructivism, prevailing models areExpand
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Critical Mass Theory and Women's Political Representation
In studies of women's legislative behaviour, the concept of critical mass is widely used and, more recently, criticised as a tool for understanding the relationship between the percentage of femaleExpand
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Analysing Women's Substantive Representation: From Critical Mass to Critical Actors
Abstract This article makes a case for rethinking traditional approaches to the study of legislative behaviour on behalf of women by asking (1) not when women make a difference, but how theExpand
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Reforming Representation: The Diffusion of Candidate Gender Quotas Worldwide
In recent years, more than a hundred countries have adopted quotas for the selection of female candidates to political office. Examining individual cases of quota reform, scholars offer four basicExpand
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Women's Representation in Parliament: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis
In recent years, statistical and case study research has increasingly reached conflicting findings in terms of the factors explaining cross-national variations in the percentage of women elected toExpand
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The impact of gender quotas
The introduction of electoral gender quotas in diverse contexts around the globe has attracted a great deal of scholarly and political interest. To date, research on these measures has focusedExpand
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Candidate gender quotas: A framework for analysis
Quotas for women in politics have diffused rapidly around the globe in recent years, with political parties and national legislatures in more than a hundred countries adopting - or debating theExpand
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Quota Laws for Women in Politics: Implications for Feminist Practice
More than fifty countries have adopted quota laws to regulate the selection or election of women to political office. This suggests that states have begun to identify quotas as a new state-ledExpand
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