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Thirty years and counting: finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP).
The effectiveness of the N400 as a dependent variable for examining almost every aspect of language processing is emphasized and its expanding use to probe semantic memory is highlighted to determine how the neurocognitive system dynamically and flexibly uses bottom-up and top-down information to make sense of the world. Expand
Reading senseless sentences: brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity.
In a sentence reading task, words that occurred out of context were associated with specific types of event-related brain potentials that elicited a late negative wave (N400). Expand
Electrophysiology reveals semantic memory use in language comprehension
Findings using an electrophysiological brain component, the N400, that reveal the nature and timing of semantic memory use during language comprehension support a view of memory in which world knowledge is distributed across multiple, plastic-yet-structured, largely modality-specific processing areas, and in which meaning is an emergent, temporally extended process. Expand
Brain potentials during reading reflect word expectancy and semantic association
The amplitude of the N400 component of the e.r.p.ps was found to be an inverse function of the subject's expectancy for the terminal word as measured by its ‘Cloze probability’, which suggests N400 may reflect processes of semantic priming or activation. Expand
Interactions between sentence context and word frequencyinevent-related brainpotentials
It is found that less frequent words were associated with larger N400s than were more frequent words, but only if theeliciting words occurred early in their respective sentences, and frequency does not play a mandatory role in wordrecognition, but can be besuperseded by the contextual constraint provided by a sentence. Expand
Probabilistic word pre-activation during language comprehension inferred from electrical brain activity
A phonological regularity of English indefinite articles is exploited in combination with event-related brain potential recordings from the human scalp to show that readers' brains can pre-activate individual words in a graded fashion to a degree that can be estimated from the probability that each word is given as a continuation for a sentence fragment offline. Expand
Mass univariate analysis of event-related brain potentials/fields I: a critical tutorial review.
This work reviews the mass univariate analyses as applied to ERP/ERF data and four methods for multiple comparison correction: strong control of the familywise error rate (FWER) via permutation tests, weak control of FWER via cluster-based permutations tests, false discovery rate control, and Control of the generalized FWER. Expand
Expect the Unexpected: Event-related Brain Response to Morphosyntactic Violations
Arguments about the existence of language-specific neural systems and particularly arguments about the independence of syntactic and semantic processing have recently focused on differences between… Expand
A Rose by Any Other Name: Long-Term Memory Structure and Sentence Processing
Abstract The effects of sentential context and semantic memory structure during on-line sentence processing were examined by recording event-related brain potentials as individuals read pairs of… Expand
Who Did What and When? Using Word- and Clause-Level ERPs to Monitor Working Memory Usage in Reading
ERPs were recorded from 24 undergraduates as they read sentences known to differ in syntactic complexity and working memory requirements, namely Object and Subject Relative sentences, and revealed significant differences due to sentence type. Expand